# CS 245 Assembly Language Programming Intro to Computer Math

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1 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 1 CS 245 Assembly Language Programming Intro to Computer Math Text: Computer Organization and Design, 4 th Ed., D A Patterson, J L Hennessy Section 2.4 Objectives: The Student shall be able to: Convert numbers between decimal, binary, hexadecimal Add binary and hexadecimal numbers. Perform logical operations: AND and OR on binary or hexadecimal numbers Determine the range of possible numbers given a number of bits for storage. Form or translate a negative number from a positive number and vice versa. Class Time: Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal Signed and Unsigned numbers Exercise Total 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 3 hours

2 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 2 Hello Binary! Imagine a world of 1s and 0s no other numbers exist. Welcome to the world of the computer. This is how information and instructions are stored in the computer. Well, what happens when we add 1+1? We must get 10. What happens if we add 10+1? We get 11. What happens if we add 11+1? We get 100. Do you see the pattern? Try it for yourself below, by continually adding one to get the decimal number on the left: Notice: what is the value of each digit? For example, if we have a binary number: B11111 what does each binary number stand for? For example, in decimal the number would be: ,000. Using the same idea, what do the binary values: 1, 10, 100, 1000, translate into in decimal? Do you notice that each binary digit is basically a double of the digit to its right? That is very important to remember. Always remember that each place is multiplied by 2! Translate the following binary numbers to decimal using this rule: B = B = B = B =

3 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 3 Addition using Binary EXERCISE: BINARY ADDITION Checking with Decimal B B 1010 = B = 15 B B 0011 = B = 15 B B 0011 = B = 12 Let s try something more complicated: B B = Carry: B B B Add the following numbers: Binary Check your work with the Decimal Equivalent

4 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 4 EXERCISE: AND & OR Now let s play with AND and OR. AND: If both bits are set, set the result: & OR: If either bit is set, set the result: We can define truth tables for these operations. The bold italicized numbers IN the table are the answers. The column header and row header are the two numbers being operated on. AND & This table shows that: 0 & 0 = 0 1 & 0 = 0 0 & 1 = 0 1 & 1 = 1 OR This table shows that: 0 0 = = = = 1 I will show how these operations work with larger binary numbers: B B B B & B B AND B OR B B B B B Now you try some: B B B B AND B OR B & B B Below, show what binary value you would use to accomplish the operation. Then do the operation to verify that it works! Bits are ordered: Using ORs to turn on bits: Using ANDs to turn off bits: B B Turn on bits 0-3 Turn off bits 3-4 B Turn on bit 0 B Turn on bits 3-4 B Turn off bits 0-3 B Turn off bits 0-4

5 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 5 Let s build a table for each numbering system. You fill in the blanks Decimal = Base 10 Binary = Base 2 Octal = Base 8 Hexadecimal = Base A B C D E F A E F There is something very special about Base 8 and Base 16 they are compatible with Base 2. So for example, let s take the binary number11000 = Notice that Base 8 operates basically modulo 8, whereas base 16 operates modulo 16. It is not easy to convert between decimal and binary, but it is easy to convert between binary and octal or hexadecimal. It is useful to know that the octal or base 8 number = (3 x 8 2 ) + (2 x 8) + 4 And the hexadecimal or base 16 number = (3 x 16 2 ) + (2 x 16) + 4

6 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 6 Hello Octal! Binary is rather tedious isn t it? It is hard to keep track of all those 1s and 0s. So someone invented base 8 and base 16. These are also known as octal and hexadecimal systems, respectively. The octal (base 8) numbering system works as follows: Base 8: To convert between binary and octal: Step 1: group the binary digits by threes, similar to how we use commas with large numbers: B becomes B B becomes B Step 2: Add zeros to the left (most significant digits) to make all numbers 3 bit numbers: B becomes B Step 3: Now convert each three bit number into a octal number: 0..7 B becomes B becomes Likewise we can convert from Octal to Binary: = = Now you try! Binary -> Octal B = = Octal -> Binary B = = B = = B = = If we want to convert from octal to decimal, we do: = (8x8 2 ) + (9x8 1 ) + (3x8 0 ) = 8x64 + 9x8 + 3 = 587 Now you try! = = 64 8 = =

8 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 8 Now convert from hexadecimal back to binary: Hexadecimal Binary Hexadecimal Binary 0x23 0x31 0x4a 0x18A 0x23F 0x xAB1 0xC0D 0x44 0xF x3C 0x58 0x28 0x49 Okay, now we can convert between binary and hexadecimal and we can do ANDs and ORs. Let s try doing these together. Let s AND hexadecimal numbers together: 0x254 AND 0x0f0 = 0010, 0101, 0100 & 0000, 1111, , 0101, 0000 = 0x 050 Notice that what we are doing is that we convert the hexadecimal to binary, and do the AND, and convert the resulting binary digits back to hexadecimal. Let s try an OR: 0x254 OR 0x0f0 = 0010, 0101, , 1111, , 1111, 0100 = 0x 2f4 ANDs and ORs are useful to turn on and off specific bits. Now you do some: 0x1a3 & 0x111 = 0x273 & 0x032 = 0x1a3 0x111= 0x273 0x032 =

9 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 9 Conversions: Hexadecimal Binary Decimal There are two ways to convert between Base 16 or Base 8 and Decimal. Method 1: Convert to Binary, then Decimal: 0x1af = = = = x456 = = = = Method 2: Use division remainders: Convert from base 10 to base N (Example base 2): Number / 2 -> remainder is digit 0 -> quotient / 2 -> remainder is digit 1 -> quotient / 2 -> remainder is digit 2 Example 1: Convert into binary: Quotient/2 ->Remainder 36/2 ->0 18/2 ->0 9/2 ->1 4/2 ->0 2/2 ->0 1/2 -> = Example 2: Convert into base 16: 36/16 ->4 2/16 -> = Example 3: Convert 0x1af to base 10: 0x1af = 1 x 16 2 = = 256 a x 16 = 10 x 16 = 160 f = +15 Total = Now you try some conversions between base 16 and base 10 (Your choice of method!) 0x AC4= 0x C4A= = =

10 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 10 Signed & Unsigned Numbers Assuming 1 byte: Binary Signed Unsigned Notice that you get HALF of the total positive numbers with signed integers!!! Example: Convert to a signed 8-bit integer: Converting to Decimal: Powers of Two The sign bit (bit 7) indicates both sign and value: If top N bit is 0, sign & all values are positive: top set value: 2 N If top N bit is 1, sign is negative: -2 N Remaining bits are calculated as positive values: = = = = = = 85 Changing Signs: Two s Compliment A positive number may be made negative and vice versa using this technique Method: Take the inverse of the original number and add 1. Original: = = -85 invert: add 1: sum: = = 85 First we determine what the range of numbers is for signed versus unsigned numbers: 4 bits 8 bits 12 bits Low High Low High Low High Unsigned Signed Total number of possible numbers Unsigned: Low = 0 High = 15 Set of 16 numbers

11 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 11 Now you try some conversions between positive and negative numbers. Assume 8-bit signed numbers (and top bit is signed bit). Hexadecimal Actual Signed Decimal Value: Change sign: value: 0x = In binary: = -121 Invert: Add 1: = 0x 79 Translate: =121 0x ba 0x fc 0x 03 0x 81 0x 33

12 Binary-Hexadecimal Worksheet 12 Real-World Exercise: Conversion Let s do something USEFUL! Below is a table to show how IP headers are formatted. In yellow is shown the formatting for an ICMP header for a PING message Version HLenth Service Type Total Length Datagram Identification Flags Fragment Offset Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum Source IP Address Destination IP Address Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Data You are writing logic to decode this hexadecimal sequence and now you want to verify that the interpreted packet is correct you must convert it manually to verify! dc 039c b c0a c0a c a 6b6c 6d6e 6f What are the decimal values for the following fields: Word 1: Version: HLenth: Total Length: Word 2: Datagram Id: Fragment Offset: Word 2: A flag is a one-bit field. Flags include bits 16-18: Don t Fragment (Bit 17): More Fragment (Bit 18): Word 3: Time to Live: Protocol: For the two addresses below, convert each byte in word to decimal and separate by periods (e.g., ): Word 4: Source IP Address: Word 5: Destination IP Address: ICMP: Type: Code: Sequence Number:

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