INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND THE NECESSITY AND OPPORTUNITIES OF COOPERATION IN COMBATTING IT

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1 Dr Jozsef Boda, Col., Police Forces (International Training Centre of the Ministry of the Interior) INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND THE NECESSITY AND OPPORTUNITIES OF COOPERATION IN COMBATTING IT THE NOTION OF TERRORISM - It is a generally accepted fact that the notion of terrorism originates in the Great French Revolution ( ) /regime de la terreur/. - According to Benjamin Netanjahu terrorism is intentional and systematic violence targeting citizens with the objective to accomplish political aims. Terrorism is a criminal act. - Terrorism grows international when the citizens of several countries take part in the preparation and execution of a terrorist act. OTHER TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS - ETA, Basque Country and Liberty, Spain; - IRA, Irish Republican Army, Northern Ireland; - RAF, Rot Armee Fraction, Germany; - Tupac Amaru, Peru; - Red Brigades, Italy; - Abu Sayyaf Group, Philippines; - PKK, Kurdistan Workers Party, Turkey. STATES PROVIDING SUPPORT TO INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPS - Seven countries were identified by the American security services after the September 11th terrorist attacks, as potential supporters of international terrorist groups. Responding to the international outcry and the lessons learned in the war in Afghanistan some of these states tried to swap camps. - The armed groups fighting for the independence of Chechnya with the use of terrorist techniques should also be mentioned here. AFGHANISTAN Under the rule of the Taliban government, keeping the country under religion-induced terror, harboured any types of terrorist groups. IRAN Lebanese Hizballah, Hamas, and a lot of other extremist groups were provided training in Iranian terrorist training camps. However, realizing the gigantic threat of terrorism, Shiite priests (mullahs) offered their help to the United States of America. IRAQ

2 Palestinian terrorist groups have been provided with support by Saddam Hussein for years. Since the Gulf War he has also been driven by a wish to take revenge. While he is at power his country will remain a supporter to terrorism. This is especially dangerous because due to their range the Iraqi missiles are capable of reaching Europe too. LIBYA For the past years Libyan president Kaddhafi has been trying to clear himself from the terrorist acts committed in the 1970 s and 80 s with his support. In 1999 he even handed over two of his secret agents to the Hague International Criminal Court examining the Pan am bombing over Lockerbie. In spite of this gesture there are not many who would really believe these changes are genuine. SUDAN This African country provides support to Taliban, Osama bin Laden, Hizballah, and Hamas. After the September 11th terrorist attacks the country initiated talks with the government of the United States of America. SYRIA This Middle East country supports and helps Palestinian terrorist groups and also launches direct attacks against Israeli interests. PAKISTAN Until the terrorist attacks against the United States of America Pakistan, possessing nuclear weapons, provided official support to Taliban. Although since the beginning the country actively supports the allied forces in Afghanistan, the terrorist at large take refuge in Pakistan. CHECHNYA In the past ten years the Russian Armed Forces tried to defeat the Chechen rebels several times. The first Chechen war lasted from 1993 to 1997 during which Dudayev, having proclaimed the independence of Chechnya, was killed by the Russian forces. The second Chechen war broke out in 1999 with an offensive of the forces of the Russian Federation. 28 th October 2002: Chechen World Congress opened in Brussels with the participation of some 100 Chechen, Russian, American, and European politicians. Their common objective was to assist a peaceful settlement. THE NOTION OF TERRORIST GROUPS Groups with a definite structure, ideology, and hierarchy, with members who set themselves a definite political aim.

3 ORGANISED TERRORIST GROUPS - HAMAS; - Palestinian Islamic Jihad; - Hizballah; - Shining Path; - Al-Gamat Al-Islamiyya (AGAI); - IR A. THE NOTION OF AD HOC TERRORIST GROUP Lone, isolated groups or individuals with various ethnic background guided by their common ideology, and radical political, social convictions. INTERNATIONAL COUNTER-TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO); - International Criminal Police (INTERPOL); - European Union (EU); - European Police Office (EUROPOL); - United Nations Organisation (UN); - International Association of Chiefs of Police (IAPC); - International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO); - World Organisation of Customs Services - Universal Postal Union; - Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); - South-east European Cooperation Initiative; - Organisation of American States; - Organisation of African Unity; - Alliance of South-east Asian Nations. INTERNATIONAL THEATRES OF COUNTER-TERRORIST PREPARATION - Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy (FBINA); - European Police College (CEPOL); - Association of European Police Colleges (AEPC); - International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA); - Central European Police Academy (CEPA); - North Baltic Police Academy (NBPA); - International Training Centre of the Ministry of the Interior (ITC); NATO After the terrorist attacks against the United States of America in accordance with Article 5 of its Charter NATO got prepared for a counterstrike as one of the member states was attacked. On 1 st October 2001 the following measures were taken by the allied upon the request of the United States of America: exchange of intelligence data, cooperation in intelligence especially in connection with terrorist threats and activities.

4 Selected allied states were asked to provide counter-terrorist operations and NATO offered 5 AWACS aircraft and some navy units for combating terrorism. From 6 th October 2001 NATO aircraft were put on readiness. The readiness NATO fleet, consisting 8 frigates, and a logistic support ship began their patrolling the Mediterranean. The United States of America and Great Britain launched their military operations against the Al Qaeda terrorist group. INTERPOL The organisation unites the police forces of 178 countries of the world supporting law enforcement activities in nearly every part of the world. It guarantees the widest possible mutual cooperation of every law enforcement agency in accordance with the charter of the organisation. The supreme body of leadership, the General Assembly, had its 2001 meeting in Budapest and approved a document on efficient international counter-terrorist cooperation. The resolution called on all law enforcement agencies of the world to enhance cooperation and exchange of information among countries, including tracing suspicious money transfers relating to terrorist acts. The enhancement of airport security and the establishment of new terrorismrelated database was emphasized. The professional work is done by the Criminal Investigation Directorate and in its framework information from the member states is analysed and evaluated, investigation of crimes of international character including terrorist acts are coordinated. The Information Technology Directorate runs a global computer network and has an enormous data base which facilitates international anti-terrorist cooperation. THE EUROPEAN UNION The EU created its common foreign and security policy (1992, Maastricht) and worked out the common European security and defence policy (1992, Petersberg). International organised crime, terrorism, and illegal migration posed such a threat to certain European countries that they were not able to manage at national level. Thus the demand for an international cooperation came up. In 2001 a resolution was made by the EU on the establishment of a 60,000- strong military and a 5,000-strong police readiness force, which is to respond to crises in accordance with the directions from the EU. The first EU police mission will be carried out in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1 st January 203 on, with the involvement of Hungarian police officers too. EUROPOL The EUROPOL, established a few years ago, is the most efficient tool of the EU in unified countering terrorism. By now there has already been a counter-terrorist department and a database has also been created on the extremist Islamic groups. The Operative Taks Force of EU Police Commissioners was established (1999,

5 Tampere, Finland) whose aim is to coordinate the unified counter-terrorist actions of member states and non-member states and measures against international organised crime. UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION There are a number of UN resolutions focusing on international anti-terrorist activities: - 15 th October 1999: The Taliban government was called on by Resolution 1267 of the Security Council to extradite o1, charged of masterminding the attack against American warship Cole th December 2000: The Taliban government was repeatedly requested by the Security Council to extradite the terrorist leader, to close terrorist training camps in Afghanistan, and execute Security Council resolutions th September 2001: The terrorist attack against the United States of America were condemned both by the Genaral Assembly and the Security Council in a resolution and called on all nations to provide help by bringing the perpetrators to court th September 2001: Resolution 1373, mandating the member states to take measures against terrorism with special regard to limiting financial support, was approved by the Security Council. - 1 st October 2001: A one-week-long Security Council session began where the opportunities in international anti-terrorist cooperation were discussed and worked out. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE The organization, founded more than 100 years ago, was established in the United States of America and unites the law enforcement agencies of nearly all countries of the world. Organizing and supporting international conferences, trainings, working out documents, manuals, recommendations for law enforcement agencies the alliance provides assistance with efficient countering international organised crime, and terrorism. The latest conference of the association was held in Budapest in collaboration with the National Police Headquarters. As early as November 2001 a study was published for assisting successful counter-terrorist operations. Its title is Leading from the Front and its English version can be found on: AMERICAN EFFORTS - National Security Council; - Department of Homeland Security; - Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

6 FBI OPPORTUNITIES - 56 FBI field offices (in each state); - Legal attaché office in 43 countries. FBI DIRECTORATE - Strategic Information Operations Centre; - National Command Centre; - National Response Centre; - Counter-terrorist Department; - Criminal Local-Survey Committee; - Criminal Laboratory. NATIONAL SECURITY TASKS OF THE FBI - National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP); - Foreign Counter-intelligence (FCI); - International terrorism; - Preventive Security Program; - National Infrastructure Protection Centre (NIPC). FOREIGN COUNTERINTELLIGENCE (FCI) - Intelligence; - Economic Espionage Act of 1996; - Questions and answers in national security (ANSIR). NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION CENTRE - IT intrusion; - Crucial initiatives; - Infra-protection. OPPORTUNITIES - Cooperation; - Information exchange; - Education and training; - Prevention; - Combat.

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