# Laboratory 5 Counter and LED Display

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1 Laboratory 5 Counter and LED Display = Required to submit your Multisim circuit files before you start the lab. Pre-lab Questions 1. Attach the detailed wiring diagram you used to construct a one decade digital display as shown in Figure 5.6. Make sure all of the pins used are labeled and numbered. 2. Attach the detailed wiring diagram you used to construct a one decade digital display as shown in Figure 5.7. Make sure all of the pins used are labeled and numbered. 3. Draw a schematic of the circuit you used to wire up the normally open (NO) button to reset the counter to 0. Show all required added components and wiring. 4. Using pseudo-code, describe an algorithm for the LED display to count up (continuously, with 1 second pauses between numbers) when SW1 is pressed and held down, and count down when SW2 is pressed and held down (see figure 5.7). Page 1 of 9

2 Laboratory 5 Counter and LED Display Purpose To build a digital counter with 1-digit decimal LED display. To learn how to assemble and interconnect various integrated circuits to achieve sophisticated functionality. To introduce the digital input and output functions of the Basic Stamp microcontroller. Introduction A common requirement in digital circuits applications is to count and display the number of pulses contained in a continuous TTL compatible pulse train (e.g., the output of a proximity sensor detecting parts on a moving conveyor belt or a photosensor detecting a reflection from a piece of tape on a rotating shaft). We want to count the number of pulses and output this number in binary coded form. This can be done using a 7490 decade counter. Refer to the 7490 pin-out and function information in Figure 5.1. Figure Datasheet Information The output of the counter is in binary coded decimal (BCD) form and consists of four bits, one bit presented by each of the four output terminals. The maximum number of combinations possible with 4 bits is 2 4 or 16. The 10 output combinations used for BCD are shown in Table 5.1. Note that here a logic high corresponds to a voltage high. A BCD counter cycles from 0 through 9, returning back to 0 after 9. Page 2 of 9

3 Table Decade Counter BCD Coding The 7490 decade counter has four reset inputs: R 0(1), R 0(2), R 9( 1), and R 9(2) that control count and reset functions. The Reset/Count Truth Table summarizing the functions of these four pins is included in Figure 5.1. There are many ways to utilize these reset inputs. A simple method is to set R 0(2) = H, R 9(l) = L, and R 9(2) = L, where H= and L=0V. When R 0(1) is set to L, the counter will be in count mode (see row 5 or 6 of the Reset/Count Truth Table in Figure 5.1). When R 0(1) is set to H, the counter will reset to 0 (LLLL) (see row 2 of the Reset/Count Truth Table). It is also convenient to display the output count on a 7 segment LED in digit form. Another device will be necessary to decode the four bits into a form compatible with the LED array. This device, the 7447 BCD-to-seven-segment decoder, converts the BCD binary number at its inputs into a 7 segment code to properly drive the LED digit (see Figure 5.2). Figure 5.2 Seven Segment LED Display (LCD) Page 3 of 9

4 The function table describing the input (BCD) to output (7-segment LED code) relationship for the 7447 is shown in Table 5.2. Refer to Figure 5.3 for the pin-out diagram for the device. Table BCD to 7-segment Decoder Figure Pin-out Diagram If the 7447 decoder driver is now properly connected to a 7 segment LED display, the count from the counter will be displayed in an easily recognizable form. It should be noted that the decoder driver does not actually drive the segment LEDs by supplying current to them; instead, it sinks current from them. Page 4 of 9

5 Components Qty. Item 1 OEM Basic Stamp 2SX microcontroller 1 1kΩ resistor 2 10kΩ resistor 1 470Ω or 330 Ω DIP resistor pack decade counter BCD to LED decoder timer 3 0.1µF capacitor µF capacitor 1 7-segment LED (common anode (CA)) 2 SPDT switches or NO buttons Procedure 1. Construct the timer circuit (see Figure 5.4) at one end of your protoboard carefully laying out the connections and wiring for easy debugging. Using the components shown in Figure 5.4, the output of the circuit will be a pulse train with a frequency of approximately 60 Hz responding to a period of approximately 16.7 ms. 555_TIMER_RATED R1 1.5kΩ R2 120kΩ RST DIS THR TRI CON GND U5 OUT C1 0.1µF C2 0.01µF Figure Timer Circuit 2. Figure 5.5 shows information from the 555 datasheet. Verify that your timer-circuit is working properly by verifying the output on the oscilloscope or by driving an LED. Show the result to your Lab instructor before continuing. Leave this circuit on your protoboard as it will be used later. Page 5 of 9

6 Figure Pin-out 3. In the steps that follow, you will construct a one decade digital display as shown in Figure 5.6. Finish wiring the 7447 and 7490 as shown in Figure 5.6. CA 555_TIMER_RATED GND U4 R1 1.5kΩ R2 120kΩ RST DIS THR TRI CON U5 OUT GND INA INB R01 R02 R91 R92 U1 7490N QA 12 QB 9 QC 8 QD U2 A OA 13 B OB 12 C OC 11 D OD 10 OE 9 ~LT OF 15 ~RBI OG 14 ~BI/RBO 7447N A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H R3 C1 0.1µF C2 0.01µF 2X8DIP 330 Ω Figure 5.6 Decade Counter Circuit Schematics Note: it is good practice to include a 0.1 uf capacitor across the power and ground pins of each IC (not shown in Figure 5.6 or Figure 5.7). This helps filter out transients that could occur on the power and ground lines during switching. The capacitors are especially important in more complicated circuits where a single power supply may be providing reference voltages and switched current to numerous components. 4. Attach the lamp test of the 7447 (pin 3, 0Vand pin 4 and pin 5, 5 V). Turn on the power supply and describe what happens. 5. Refer to the 7490 Reset/ Count Truth Table, all of the reset pins are grounded, putting the 7490 in count mode. To be able to reset the counter (e.g., with at pushbutton input), set R 0(2) =H, R 9(1) =L, and R 9(2) =L, and wire up a normally-open (NO) button to R 0(1) so the Page 6 of 9

7 signal is low when the button is not pressed. When R 0(1) =L, the counter will be in count mode, and when R 0(1 ) =H (when the button is pressed), the counter will reset to Demonstrate to the lab instructor that your display can increment properly from 0 to 9. At the same time, also demonstrate that you can reset the counter to Now disconnect the 555 circuit and wire up a button with a pull-up resistor to the 7490 input instead. Press the button a few times and describe what happens. 8. Build the section of the circuit shown in the dashed rectangle (A) first. Do not connect the 7447 to the Stamp yet! Use the pinout diagrams for the 7447 and display to locate where the pins are actually located. Figure 5.7 Switch Controlled Display Circuit 9. After you have proven that the 7447 and 7-segment display have been wired correctly, connect power and common to the Stamp pins V in and V ss respectively. Don t connect anything else to the Stamp yet! To make sure that the Stamp is not running some previous program, enter and run the following program: Stop everything Put your name here Put the date here end Page 7 of 9

8 10. Now connect the DCBA inputs to the Stamp pins P3, P2, P1, and P0 respectively. Enter and run the following program: Display test Put your name here Put the date here LOW 0 LOW 1 LOW 2 LOW 3 end What does the 7-segment display show? The command LOW n does two things: 1) It makes the pin n an output, and 2) It takes the voltage down close to common potential (i.e., outputs a 0 ). What is the voltage at pins 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 15 of the 7447 chip? What is the voltage at pin 14 of the 7447 chip? Save the program to your USB flash drive. Change the line LOW 0 to HIGH 1. Which pins of the 7447 do you expect to be at 5 V, and which are low? Experiment with making pins P0-P3 HIGH or LOW until you are satisfied with your understanding of what is happening with the Stamp pins and your circuit. 11. The approach above is not very amenable to automating the output of a number to the display. Suppose you had a loop that counted between 0 and 9, and you wanted to output the count to the display. How would you do it? One way to do it is to store a binary number in a variable in the microcontroller s address space that corresponds to the I/O pins. The 0 s in the binary number will set the corresponding pin low, and the 1 s will set the corresponding pin high. Try the following program: Display loop test Put your name here Put the date here counter var nib defines the variable counter as a 4 bit variable OUTA=\$0 sets the lower 4 bits in the ouput register to b0000, i.e., DIRA=\$F loop: FOR counter=0 to 9 OUTA=counter pause 1000 NEXT goto loop makes sure P0-P3 will go low when DIR is set to output sets the lower 4 bits in the DIRS register to b1111, i.e., makes pins P0-P3 be outputs, so values in OUTA show up there. Should see 0 on display now What happens to the display? Save the program to your USB flash drive. Modify the program to count down. Page 8 of 9

9 12. So far we ve been dealing with the digital output capabilities of the Stamp. Now let s bring in the digital input capabilities. Let s make the display circuit output 0 if neither button is pressed, 1 if SW1 is pressed, or 2 if SW2 is pressed. Complete the circuit in Figure 5.7 by wiring in the two switches and their current limiting resistors. Try the following program: Switch Controlled Display Circuit Put your name here Put the date here OUTA=\$0 sets the lower 4 bits in the ouput register to b0000, i.e., makes sure P0-P3 will go low when DIR is set to output DIRC=\$0 sets the lower 4 bits of the upper byte in the DIRS DIRA=\$F loop: IF IN8=1 AND IN9=1 THEN zero IF NOT IN8=1 AND IN9=1 THEN one OUTA=2 goto loop one: OUTA=1 goto loop zero: OUTA=0 goto loop register to b0000, i.e., makes P8-P11 inputs sets the lower 4 bits in the DIRS register to b1111, i.e., makes pins P0-P3 be outputs, so values in OUTA show up there. Should see 0 on display Explain how this program works following the label loop: 13. Modify the program from Step 12 so that the display will output 3 if both switches are pressed (and held down). 14. Write a program that will cause the display to count up (continuously, with 1 second pauses between numbers) when SW1 is pressed and held down, and count down when SW2 is pressed and held down. Questions 1. Which pins of the 7447 should be high to display a b? 2. When the button is used for the input instead of the 555 circuit, what did you observe with each press and release of the button, and why? Be specific. Page 9 of 9

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