III. IDENTIFICATION of the IONS in CONSUMER PRODUCTS

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1 1 III IDENTIFICATION of the IONS in CONSUMER PRODUCTS I. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND NOTE: Parts A-F need not be completed in the order written. The solutions used in this experiment have concentrations expressed in "molarity" units (example: 0.1 M AgNO3 means that there are 0.1 "moles" of AgNO 3 per liter of solution). This concentration unit will be studied later in this course. Identification of the compounds dissolved in an aqueous solution (such as drinking water) is an important aspect of chemistry. The procedures used to identify soluble ionic compounds are based on the characteristic reactions of the various ions. In this experiment, you will identify the ions that are present in some common consumer products: II. PROCEDURE Note: hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can cause burns with prolonged contact with the skin, and almost immediate damage with contact to the eyes. Wear your goggles! If you spill either of these materials on your skin or clothes, rinse it off immediately. A. Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) and "salt substitute" (potassium chloride, KCl) Sodium chloride is best known for its use as a flavoring agent. It is also used in intravenous saline solution (it acts to stimulate the heart muscle). Liberal use of the sodium ion in flavoring food has been linked to high blood pressure. Potassium chloride is gaining popularity as a "salt substitute," an alternative for sodium chloride. KCl is also used in the treatment of arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm). When either of these compounds is dissolved in water, chloride ions (Cl ) are generated. The presence of chloride ion is detected by a characteristic reaction with silver ion (Ag + ). A white precipitate of silver chloride is formed.

2 2 Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl (s) In the chemical equation that describes this reaction, (s) stands for solid, and (aq) stands for aqueous (dissolved in water) ions. This equation is also known as a net ionic equation, as it only includes those ions that actually participate in the reaction. Note that sodium ion from NaCl is not included in the equation; it does not change in the reaction and is considered a spectator ion. 1. Test for chloride ion in table salt. Place several crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl) in a small test tube. Fill the test tube half way with distilled water and agitate the tube by holding it at the top with one hand and flicking it at the bottom with your other hand until the salt is fully dissolved. Add two drops of 0.1 M AgNO 3 solution. The formation of a white silver chloride precipitate is a positive test for chloride ion. Record your observations. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride also contains sodium ions. These can be detected by a flame test; Na + ions give a strong yellow color in the flame of a Bunsen burner. 2. Flame test for sodium ion in table salt. Place several crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the tip of a clean spatula. Hold the tip of the spatula in a Bunsen burner flame to heat the crystals. A yellow flame is characteristic of sodium ions. Record your observations. Potassium ions as well as chloride ions are produced when potassium chloride is dissolved in water, K + ions give a characteristic violet color in the flame of a burner. 3. Flame test for potassium ion in salt substitute (KCl). Place several crystals of potassium chloride (KCl) on the tip of a clean spatula. Hold the tip of the spatula in a Bunsen burner flame to heat the crystals. Observe the flame through the blue cobalt glass provided. This glass will absorb any yellow sodium emission and make the violet flame of the potassium ion easier to observe. Record your observations. B. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) Ammonium chloride is used as a diuretic and expectorant (it liquefies bronchial secretions).

3 3 Ammonium chloride dissolves in water to yield ammonium (NH 4 + ) and chloride ions. Ammonium ions will react with strong bases (such as sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to form gaseous ammonia (NH 3 ). Ammonia gas has an irritating odor and can be detected with a piece of moistened red litmus paper, the red litmus paper will turn blue. NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) NH 3(g) + H 2 O (l) In the chemical equation that describes this reaction, (aq) stands for aqueous ions, (g) stands for gas, and (l) stands for liquid. 1. Test for ammonium ion in ammonium chloride (to be used as a standard). Moisten one end of a piece of red litmus paper with water. Place about one-fourth spatula full of solid ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) in a test tube. Add ten drops of 6 M NaOH. Determine whether NH 3 gas is evolved by immediately placing the piece of moistened red litmus paper over the mouth of the test tube. NH 3 will turn the red litmus paper blue; this is an indication of the presence of the ammonium ion. Record your observations. Save the mixture for comparison with the test for ammonium ion in fertilizer. 2. Test for ammonium ion in plant fertilizer. Place about one-half spatula full of solid plant fertilizer in a second test tube. Test for the presence of ammonium ion in the fertilizer by adding ten drops of 6 M NaOH and then holding a piece of moistened red litmus paper over the mouth of the test tube. Compare your results with the standard that you prepared in the step above. Record your observations. C. Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate, MgSO 4. 7H2 O) Epsom salt is both a laxative and a purgative (depending on the amount ingested), and is also used for soaking feet. When Epsom salt is dissolved in water, magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ) and sulfate ions (SO 4 2- ) are produced. When treated with a strong base (such as sodium hydroxide, NaOH), the magnesium ion will form a white precipitate of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2. This compound will combine with a "magnesium reagent" (p-nitrobenzene azoresorcinol) that is specific for Mg(OH) 2 to produce a gelatinous blue "lake". Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 OH (g) Mg reag ent Mg(OH) 2. dye blue lake

4 4 1. Test for magnesium ion in Epsom salt. Place about one-fourth spatula full of Epsom salt (MgSO 4. 7H2 0) in a small test tube. Fill the tube ~half full with distilled water and agitate the tube to dissolve the salt. Add five drops of 6 M NaOH and agitate the tube to mix. Add five drops of "magnesium reagent" and agitate the tube again. The formation of the gelatinous blue "lake" is a positive test for the presence of magnesium ions. Record your observations. Sulfate ion can be detected by adding an acidic solution of barium chloride (BaCl 2 ). A white precipitate of barium sulfate forms, indicating the presence of sulfate ion. Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2 (aq) acid BaSO 4(s) 2. Test for sulfate ion in Epsom salt. Place about one-fourth spatula full of Epsom salt (MgSO 4. 7H 2 O) in a small test tube. Fill the tube ~half full with distilled water and agitate the tube to dissolve the salt. Add one drop of 6 M HCl followed by two drops of BaCl 2 solution. Formation of a white precipitate is a positive test for the presence of sulfate ions. Record your observations. D. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 ) Baking soda is used as a leavening agent in baking and also as a stomach antacid. Sodium bicarbonate dissolves in water to produce sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ion (HCO 3 - ) reacts with acids to form carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). The carbon dioxide is an odorless and colorless gas, but can be detected by its characteristic reaction with barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2, to form a white precipitate of barium carbonate (BaCO 3 ). HCO 3 (aq) + H + (aq) CO 2(g) + Ba(OH) 2(aq) CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) BaCO 3(s) + H 2 O (l) 1. Test for bicarbonate ion in baking soda. Place about one-fourth spatula full of baking soda (NaHCO 3 ) in a small test tube. Fill the tube ~half full with distilled water and agitate the tube to dissolve the solid. Add a few drops of 6 M HCl and observe the result immediately. Record your observations. Pour out the solution, rinse the test tube,

5 5 and add another one-fourth spatula full of baking soda. Now hold a drop of Ba(OH) 2 solution on the tip of a pipet over the mouth of the test tube, and add a few drops of 6M HCl. The formation of a white precipitate in the drop is a positive indication that the gas evolved is CO 2 and that the substance tested contained the carbonate ion. Record your observations. E. Aluminum chlorhydrate (AlCl 3. 6 H 2 0) Aluminum chlorhydrate is the active ingredient in many antiperspirants. This compound produces aluminum ions and chloride ions as it dissolves in water. Aluminum ions (Al 3+ ) react with weak bases (such as ammonium hydroxide, NH 4 OH) to form a white gelatinous precipitate, aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH) 3. This precipitate absorbs the "aluminum reagent" (also called "aluminon") to produce a gelatinous cherry-red "lake". Al 3+ (aq) + 3 OH (aq) + aluminum reagent Al(OH) 3. dye red lake 1. Test for aluminum ion in aluminum nitrate solution (to be used as a standard). Fill a small test tube ~half full with 0.1 M Al(NO 3 ) 3 solution, then add five drops of aluminum reagent and stir thoroughly with a glass rod. Add 6 M NH 4 OH dropwise with stirring until the solution becomes basic. (You can determine this by touching your stirring rod to the solution and then to a strip of red litmus paper. The solution is basic if it changes the red litmus paper to blue.) Formation of a gelatinous cherry-red "lake" is a positive test for the presence of aluminum ion. Record your observations, and save the mixture for comparison with the test for aluminum ion in an antiperspirant. 2. Test for aluminum ion in an antiperspirant. Place one spatula full of antiperspirant paste in a medium test tube. Fill the test tube ~half full with distilled water and add ten drops of 6 M HCl; stir the mixture with a stirring rod. Heat the test tube in a boiling water bath for five minutes. Gravity filter the cooled mixture into a second test tube. To the filtrate (the liquid that passed through the filter paper), add five drops of aluminum reagent; stir the mixture thoroughly. Add 6 M NH 4 OH dropwise with stirring until the mixture becomes basic to litmus (red litmus paper turns blue). Compare your results with the standard that you prepared in the step above. Record your observations.

6 6 F. Sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) Sodium phosphate is used as a water softening agent and plant nutrient. An aqueous solution of sodium phosphate contains sodium ions and phosphate ions. In an acidic solution, phosphate ions (PO 4 3- ) will react with ammonium molybdate, (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4, to form a bright yellow precipitate. PO 4 3- (aq) + 12 MoO 4 2 (aq) + 3 NH 4 + (aq) (NH4) 3 PO 4 (MoO 3 ) 12(s) + 12 H 2 O (l) 1. Test for phosphate ion in sodium phosphate solution (to be used as a standard). Fill a medium test tube ~1/4 with 0.1 M Na 3 PO 4 solution. Add 6 M HNO 3 dropwise with stirring until the solution is acidic to litmus paper (blue litmus paper turns red). Add ten drops of (NH4) 2 MoO 4 reagent to the tube. Stir the mixture thoroughly, and heat the tube in a warm water bath. Formation of a bright yellow precipitate is a positive test for the presence of phosphate ion. Record your observations, and save the mixture for comparison with the test for phosphate ion in detergent. 2. Test for phosphate ion in detergent. Place about one-half spatula full of detergent in a medium test tube. Add enough distilled water and stir to dissolve. Add 6 M HNO 3 dropwise with stirring until the solution is acidic to litmus paper (blue litmus paper turns red). Add ten drops of (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 reagent to the tube. Stir the mixture thoroughly, and heat the tube in a warm water bath. Compare your results with the standard that you prepared in the step above. Record your observations. Lab Report 1. Fill in the report sheets with your observations and conclusions. You will turn the report sheets in at the beginning of prelab your next lab period not on Chem Complete the post-lab exercise for writing the formulas of ionic compounds on Chem21.

7 7 Report Sheet: Experiment 3 Name Partner's Name Date Instructor's Initials Observations and : Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) and "salt substitute" (potassium chloride, KCl) NaCl + AgNO 3 : NaCl in flame: KCl in flame: Ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) (NH 4 Cl + NaOH) on litmus paper: (fertilizer + NaOH) on litmus paper: Does the fertilizer contain NH 4 + ions?

8 8 Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate, MgSO4. 7H 2 O) Epsom salt + NaOH: Epsom salt + NaOH + magnesium reagent: Epsom salt + HCl + BaCl 2 : Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3) NaHCO 3 + HCl: CO 2 + HCl + Ba(OH) 2 :

9 9 Aluminum chlorhydrate (AlCl 3. 6 H 2 O) Al(NO 3 ) 3 + NH 4 OH + aluminum reagent: antiperspirant + HCl + NH 4 OH + aluminum reagent: Sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) Na 3 PO 4 + HNO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 : detergent + HNO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 :

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