GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems

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1 GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems Why does the climate differ from one place to another? What controls the global climate? What typical climate patterns do we have across the globe? Do you know what a Tropical Savanna climate means? What controls the long term climate change, e.g., global warming?

2 Topics Earth s Climate System and Its Classification Tropical Climates Mesothermal Climates Microthermal Climates Polar Climates Dry Arid and Semiarid Climates Global Climate Change

3 Global Climate Systems Earth s Climate System and Its Classification Climate is weather over time Climatology is the study of climate Climatic regions are areas with similar weather statistics

4 Global Climate Systems Earth s Climate System and Its Classification Figure 10.1 Climate components: Insolation Temperature Pressure Air Masses Precipitation Internal and external processes

5 Global Climate Systems Climate components: Insolation : energy input for the climate system; varies widely by latitude (Ch.2) Temperature: controlled by latitude, altitude, Land-water heating, cloud cover (Ch.5)

6 Distribution of Insolation

7 Global Climate Systems Climate components: Insolation : energy input for the climate system; varies widely by latitude (Ch.2) Temperature: controlled by latitude, altitude, Land-water heating, cloud cover (Ch.5)

8 Global Climate Systems Climate components: Pressure: temp variations, global wind (Ch.6) Air Masses: location, oceanic and continental Precipitation: hydrologic cycle transfers moisture with latent heat energy to climate system

9 General Atmospheric Circulation and Wind patterns Figure 6.13

10 Global Climate Systems Climate components: Pressure: temp variations, global wind (Ch.6) Air Masses: location, oceanic and continental Precipitation: hydrologic cycle transfers moisture with latent heat energy to climate system

11 Global Climate Systems Classification of Climatic Regions There are a lot of classifications available in the literature Empirical classification: - based on statistical data, e.g., temperature and precipitation Genetic classification: - based on causative factors, e.g., the interaction of air masses

12 Global Climate Systems Classification of Climatic Regions Chapter 10: features both genetic and empirical factors We focus on temperature and precipitation measurements, and For the desert areas, moisture efficiency and temperature

13 World Climate Classification Figure 10.5

14 Generalized Climate Regions Figure 10.4

15 Tropical Climates Tropical Monsoon Climates ITCZ migrates to affect these areas 6 to 12 months A dry season that lasts for one or more months Along coastal areas within the tropical rain forest climate

16 Tropical Climates

17 Tropical Climates Tropical Rain Forest Climates Constantly moist and warm (rainy all the year) Precipitation follows the migration of ITCZ Annual temperature range is only 2 C2

18 Tropical Rain Forest Figure 10.7

19 Tropical Monsoon Figure 10.8

20 Tropical Climates Tropical Savanna Climates Poleward of the tropical rain forest climates ITCZ reaches these areas 6 months or less Summers are wet than winters Temperatures vary more than rain forest areas

21 Tropical Savanna Figure 10.9

22 Classification of Climatic Regions Microthermal Climates (mid and high latitudes, cold winters) Humid continental (hot to warm summers) Subarctic (cool summers to very cold winters) Polar Climates (high latitudes and polar regions) Tundra (high latitude or high altitude) Ice caps and ice sheets (perpetually frozen) Polar marine

23 Classification of Climatic Regions Highland Climates (highlands at same latitudes) Desert (permanent moisture deficits) Arid deserts (tropical and midlatitudes) Semiarid steppes (tropical midlatitudes)

24 Mesothermal Climates Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer Climates Maritime tropical and continental polar air mass interacts to generate midlatitude cyclones and precipitation Hot and wet summer but dry winter Marine West Coast Climates Maritime polar air masses cool, moist, unstable dominate Weather is quite unpredictable Rainy and foggy Mediterranean Dry-Summer Climates Dry summer but wet winter Continental dry air masses block the maritime air masses in the summer

25 Mesothermal Climates

26 GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems Topics Microthermal Climates Polar Climates Dry Arid and Semiarid Climates Global Climate Change

27 Generalized Climate Regions Figure 10.4

28 Classification of Climatic Regions Microthermal Climates (mid and high latitudes, cold winters) Humid continental (hot to warm summers) Subarctic (cool summers to very cold winters)

29 Microthermal Climates 1. Humid Continental Hot-Summer Climates Humid and hot in summer Dry and cold in winter NY and Dalian in China

30 Microthermal Climates

31 Microthermal Climates 2. Humid Continental Mild-Summer Climates Humid but not hot summer and dry winter Lower temperature, precipitation from snow E.g., Duluth, Minnesota

32 Microthermal Climates

33 Microthermal Climates 3. Subarctic Climates Greater seasonal changes and annual T changes Dry and very cold winter E.g., Alaska, Canada, Siberia in Russia

34 Microthermal Climates

35 Classification of Climatic Regions Polar Climates (high latitudes and polar regions) Tundra (high latitude or high altitude) Ice caps and ice sheets (perpetually frozen) Polar marine

36 Polar and Highland Climates 1. Tundra Climate Continuous snow cover for 8-10 months Warmest months can be above 0 C but never exceeds 10 C Mainly in northern hemisphere, except for high mountains

37 Polar and Highland Climates 2. Ice Cap and Ice Sheet Climates Most of the Antarctic and central greenland 3. Polar Marine Climate Moderate than ice sheet climates, T > -7 C Cold than the Tundra climates

38 Polar and Highland Climates

39 Classification of Climatic Regions Highland Climates (highlands at same latitudes)

40 Classification of Climatic Regions Desert (permanent moisture deficits) Arid deserts (tropical and midlatitudes) Semiarid steppes (tropical midlatitudes)

41 Dry, Arid, and Semiarid Climates Dry subsiding air; rain shadow; away from moisture-bearing air masses 1. Deserts Precipitation supply roughly less than onehalf of the natural moisture demand a. Hot Low-Latitude Desert Climates b. Cold Midlatitude Desert Climates

42 Dry, Arid, and Semiarid Climates 2. Steppes Precipitation supply roughly more than one-half of the natural moisture demand a. Hot Low-Latitude Steppe Climates Exists around the periphery of hot deserts b. Cold Midlatitude Steppe Climates Mostly northern hemisphere

43 Arid and Semiarid Climates

44 Global Climate Change Global Warming CO 2 raised from 280 ppm in 1750 to 375 ppm in 2003 CO 2 is responsible for about 64% of the global warming CH 4 is increasing 1% a year CH 4 is responsible for about 19% of the global warming N 2 O increased by about 17% in the last 1000 years N 2 O by fertilizer use Its effects is not fully understood yet CFCs and other gases

45 Global Temperatures Figure 10.28

46

47 Global Climate Change Global Warming Climate Models and Future Temperatures Consequences of Global Warming Political Action to Slow Global Warming

48 Carbon Dioxide Sources Figure 10.29

49 Global Climate Systems Climatology Climate Controlling factors/elements Classification of climatic regions Global climate changes

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