Isolating-Monocategorial-Associational. Valency Classes in Jakarta Indonesian. David Gil. Isolating-Monocategorial-Associational

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1 Isolating-Monocategorial-Associational Valency Classes in Jakarta Indonesian David Gil with: Tom Conners, John Bowden, and the JFS staff Isolating lacking in word-internal morphological structure Monocategorial lacking in distinct syntactic categories Associational lacking in distinct construction-specific rules of semantic interpretation, relying instead on default application of the association operator Isolating-Monocategorial-Associational Semiotics Some artificial languages are IMA language Phylogeny Early human language was IMA language Ontogeny Early child language is IMA language Typology Some languages come closer than others to IMA language Grammatical Architecture All languages are based on IMA language Isolating-Monocategorial-Associational Part 1 The basic IMA structure of Jakarta Indonesian Part 2 The non-ima accoutrements of Jakarta Indonesian (1) (2) (3) (4) satpam security.guard gede beli buy THING PROPERTY ACTIVITY (monovalent semantic frame) ACTIVITY (multivalent semantic frame) (1) (2) (3) (4) satpam security.guard 'He's a security guard' gede 'He's ' 'He's ing' beli buy 'He's buying it' same grammatical behaviour standing alone as complete non-elliptical sentence 1

2 (5) (6) (7) (8) satpam security.guard SECURITY GUARD A ( HOUSE ) gede BIG A ( HOUSE ) SLEEP A ( HOUSE ) beli buy BUY A ( HOUSE ) with an additional expression (5) (6) (7) (8) satpam security.guard '-security-guard' gede '-' '-ing' beli buy '-buying' (5) (6) (7) (8) satpam security.guard 'He's the security guard of a ' gede 'He's as as a ' 'He's ing at a ' beli buy 'He's buying a ' As an IMA language, Jakarta Indonesian has no thematic role assignment core/periphery distinction subject/object asymmetries valency All of the above is true, but it's only most of the truth, not all of it The non-ima Accoutrements of Jakarta Indonesian Linear Order in Jakarta Indonesian Preference rules: linear order flagging generalized voice optional preferences head-modifier iconicity information flow make Jakarta Indonesian look like a fairly typical SVO language 2

3 Flagging in Jakarta Indonesian sama ~ ama 'NON-ABSOLUTIVE' (9) (sama) Ali beli together Ali buy 'Ali bought a ' (10) (sama) Ali kasi buku (sama) Amat together Ali give book together Amat 'Ali gave a book to Amat' Flagging in Jakarta Indonesian ke 'to' (11) Ali balik (ke) Ali return to 'Ali returned to the ' dari 'from' (12) Ali balik (dari) Ali return from 'Ali returned from the ' Flagging in Jakarta Indonesian Flagging in Jakarta Indonesian (13) Ali beli (di) Ali buy in 'Ali bought it in the ' (14) Ali beli (ke) Ali buy to 'Ali bought it by going to the ' (15) Ali beli (dari) Ali buy from 'Ali bought it from the ' no government of arguments by a verb "semantic case" not "structural case" (13) Ali beli (di) Ali buy in 'Ali bought it in the ' (13a) Ali beli Ali buy 'Ali bought it in the ' (13b) Ali beli di Ali buy in 'Ali bought it in the ' weak (13b) and its like are more frequent than (13a) and its like di= N- -in GENERALIZED PASSIVE GENERALIZED ACTIVE GENERALIZED APPLICATIVE di= GENERALIZED PASSIVE =? # di di gede # digede # di gede # di # di buy beli dibeli # di beli 3

4 di= GENERALIZED PASSIVE (16) (Ali) liat Ali look (Amat) Amat 'Ali is looking at Amat' 'Amat is looking at Ali' (17) (Ali) diliat (Amat) Ali GEN.PASS-look Amat 'Ali is looking at Amat' 'Amat is looking at Ali' =? [PREFERRED] [STRONGLY PREFERRED] N- GENERALIZED ACTIVE go tea look coffee follow watch cry RARE pergi teh liat kopi susul * tonton * tangis * mergi * nidur RARE neh ngeliat ngopi nyusul nonton nangis N- GENERALIZED ACTIVE N- GENERALIZED ACTIVE (18) (Ali) liat () Ali look 'Ali is looking at the ' (19) (Ali) ngeliat () Ali GEN.ACT-look 'Ali is looking at the ' (20) (Ali) kopi Ali coffee 'Ali is drinking coffee' (21) (Ali) ngopi Ali GEN.ACT-coffee 'Ali is drinking coffee' Ali occurs more frequently in (21) than in (20) moderate # in fridge kulkas kulkasin put in fridge gede gedein enlarge CAUSATIVE kan make CAUSATIVE buy beli beliin buy for BENEFACTIVE talk bicara bicarain talk about teach ajar ajarin teach Ø (22) (Ali) ajar (Amat) Ali teach Amat 'Ali taught Amat' (23) (Ali) ajarin Ali 'Ali taught Amat' teach-gen.appl (Amat) Amat 4

5 (24) (Ali) beli (Amat) (buku) Ali buy Amat book 'Ali bought Amat a book' (25) (Ali) beliin (Amat) (buku) Ali buy-gen.appl Amat book 'Ali bought Amat a book' (26) (Ali) bicara (Amat) Ali talk Amat 'Ali talked about Amat' (27) (Ali) bicarain (Amat) Ali talk-gen.appl Amat 'Ali talked about Amat' Amat occurs more frequently in (27) than in (26) weak (28) (Ali) gede () Ali 'Ali enlarged the ' (29) (Ali) gedein () Ali -GEN.APPL 'Ali enlarged the ' occurs more frequently in (29) than in (28) substantial Valency Classes in Jakarta Indonesian Summary single valency class for (almost) all words: several valency preference that make Jakarta Indonesian look more like other languages W English typological space Yoruba Indonesian IMA language Arabic Bezhta Indonesian IMA language 5

6 Bare Peripherals Substitution of peripheral for core participants: (13a) Ali beli Ali buy 'Ali bought it in the ' more common cross-linguistically than commonly acknowledged Hebrew English The Association Experiment Substitutability of Peripheral for Core Participants Twi Kapampangan Papiamentu Standard Ind Sranan Palauan Mandarin Colloq French Riau Ind Ju 'hoan Roon Yoruba Vietnamese Meyah Jakarta Ind Minangkabau Mentawai Sundanese Nage An Incremental Approach to Grammatical Description complex not decremental English Indonesian IMA simple 6

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