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2 c. Draw the block diagram of superheterodyne FM receiver. What s the purpose of the limiter and deemphasis network stages in an FM receiver? 5 Marks Limiter is a circuit whose o/p is a constant amplitude for all inputs above a critical value. The use of limiters in FM receivers essentially provide an AGC function. It removes any residual unwanted amplitude variations due to noise. As Higher modulating frequencies are affected by noise to a great extent compared to lower ones, they are boosted pre-emphasized at the transmitter and correspondingly attenuated at the receiver de-emphasized, This provides greater noise immunity. The deemphasis network is required to bring the high-frequency intelligence back to the proper amplitude relationship with the lower frequencies 2

3 d. The local FM stereo rock station is at 96.5 MHz. Calculate the local oscillator frequency and the image frequency for a 10.7 MHz IF receiver. 2 Marks Answer: f RF = 96.5 MHz The local oscillator frequency f LO = f RF + f IF In FM f IF = 10.7 MHz Local oscillator frequency = = MHz The image frequency = f LO + f IF = = MHz e. Draw the block diagram of a typical FM stereo transmitter and draw its frequency spectrum. 5 Marks Typical FM stereo transmitter 3

4 FM stereo frequency spectrum Question (2) (20 Marks) a. Draw only the block diagram of TV receiver. What is the purpose of synchronization pulses of TV transmitted signal? Draw the horizontal synchronization pulse of TV transmitted signal. 6 Marks Block diagram of TV receiver 4

5 When TV camera starts scanning line 1, the receiver must also start scanning line 1 on the CRT output display. You do not want the top of a scene appearing at the centre of the TV screen. Synchronization pulses is used to set the speed that the transmitter scans each line to be exactly duplicated by the receiver scanning process to avoid distortion. b. Calculate the frequency required for the horizontal and vertical Sync pulses? If 10 µs is left for the blanking period, Determine the increase in horizontal resolution of TV transmitter if the video bandwidth frequency is increased from 4 MHz to 5 MHz. 4 Marks Answer: The vertical retrace (sync) pulses must occur after each 1/60 second The frequency of the vertical f V sync pulses 60 Hz Horizontal sync pulses occur once for each of the 525 lines every 1/30 seconds The frequency of the horizontal f H sync pulses 525 x 30 = khz Line Duration = 1/Line Frequency = 1/15.75 khz = 63.5 µs Each line lasts 63.5 ms with 10 ms for the blanking period leaving 53.5 µs The total number of horizontal lines resolvable is 53.5 µs x 5 MHz x 2 = 535 lines 5

6 c. If a television broadcast station transmits the video signals on channel 6 (82 to 88 MHz), what is the center frequency of the aural transmitter. Draw a detailed spectrum of the input and output signal of the mixer stage. 4 Marks Answer: The center frequency of the aural carrier is = MHz d. Explain the function of wavetrap and the need of such traps in TV receivers. 2 Marks Wavetrap (notch filter) is needed to obtain the steep attenuation curve for the sound carrier. They are employed in quality sets to eliminate the carrier signal of an upper and lower adjacent channels occur at and MHz respectively. This minimizes interference effects that the sound would have on the picture. If the IF sound signal is not attenuated enough visual interference may be present 6

7 e. Draw a block diagram of the quadrature modulation part in a color TV transmitter. Show the frequency spectrum of the composite color TV transmission. 4 Marks TV Quadrature Modulation Composite Color TV Transmission Question (3) (22 Marks) a. Compare between time division and code division multiple access techniques (TDMA and CDMA). 3 Marks TDMA systems use digital technology to divide the radio spectrum by time so that each RF carrier is shared by several users. This multiplies system capacity. The RF carrier is divided into units of time called frames. Each frame is further divided into time slots. Each user is assigned a time slot (or slots) in every time frame. Once time slots are assigned, they remain dedicated until the caller hangs up or is handed-off to another channel. 7

8 Buffer zones in the form of guard times are inserted between the assigned time slots. This is done to reduce interference between users by allowing for time uncertainty that arises due to system imperfections especially in synchronization schemes CDMA supports many users on each RF carrier with relatively wide bandwidth, and distinguishes users by using digital codes rather than frequency or time. The same process that encodes speech signals also spreads them over a much wider bandwidth than other multiple access systems. IS-95 has 1.23 MHz CDMA carriers. CDMA transmissions appear more like noise than like information signals. b. The downlink C/N o ratio in a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) system is estimated to be 85 db-hz. The specifications of the link are: Satellite EIRP = 57 dbw, Downlink carrier frequency = 12.5 GHz Data rate = 10 Mb/s, Required (E b /N o ) at the receiving earth terminal = 10 db Distance of the satellite from the receiving earth terminal = 41,000 km Calculate the minimum diameter of the dish antenna needed to provide a satisfactory TV reception, assuming that the dish has an efficiency of 55% and it is located alongside the home where the temperature is 310 K. For this calculation, assume that the operation of the DBS system is essentially downlink-limited. 6 Marks 8

9 9

10 c. In wireless communication systems, the carrier frequency on the uplink (reverse link) is smaller than the carrier frequency on the downlink (forward link). Justify the rational for this choice. 2 Marks 10

11 d. State if the following statements are ( ) or ( ) and justify your answer Note: Negation is not the answer : 5 Marks 1. The carrier frequency for satellite communications is in the MHz range (C-band), whereas in wireless communication it is in the GHz range (Ku-band). ( ) Correct: The carrier frequency for satellite communications is in the GHz range (Kuband), whereas in wireless communication it is in the MHz range. 2. Cellular radio systems consist of an array of circular cells with a base station located at the center of each cell. ( ) Correct: Cellular radio systems consist of an array of hexagonal cells with a base station located at the center of each cell. 3. The base station controller BSC handles the interface between the cellular radio system and the public switched telephone network PSTN. ( ) Correct: The mobile switching center MSC handles the interface between the cellular radio system and the public switched telephone network PSTN. 4. Cell splitting handles the additional growth in traffic within a particular cell by reducing its interference with other sectors using the same frequencies. ( ) 5. The frequency reuse factor within a TDMA network is one, while that of a CDMA network is 1/4. ( ) Correct: The frequency reuse factor within a CDMA network is one, while that of a TDMA network is 1/7. e. Discus the following terms: 1. Frequency reuse 2. Multipath Fading 3. Handoff 6 Marks Frequency reuse Refers to the use of radio channels on the same carrier frequency to cover different areas, which are physically separated from each other sufficiently to ensure the co-channel interference is not objectionable. Frequency reuse makes it possible to keep the transmitted power from each BS to a minimum and position the BS s just high enough to provide the required coverage area for the cell. 11

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