Technical Means of Automation

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1 Technical Means of Automation Temperature Sensors and Measurement Institute of Information Engineering, Automation and Mathematics October 6, 2015

2 Temperature Sensors 2/42

3 Temperature Sensors Contact sensors: Thermal expansion sensors Thermistor Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Termocouple Non-contact sensors Radiation pyrometers 3/42

4 Thermal Expansion Sensors Bi-Metal Sensors Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will expand with increased temperature depends on the size of the sample, the material it is made of, and the amount of temperature rise. l = l 0 (1+α T) l Length of material after heating l 0 Original length of material α Coefficient of linear expansion T Change in temperature Some examples: Aluminum = per degree C Copper = per degree C 4/42

5 Thermal Expansion Sensors Bi-Metal Sensors Expansion copper iron Bending copper iron 5/42

6 Thermal Expansion Sensors Bi-Metal Sensors 6/42

7 Thermal Expansion Sensors Wax Thermo-mechanical regulators Thermostats Wax thermostats can transfer the energy of temperature change into mechanical force. 7 / 42

8 Thermal Expansion Sensors Filled Liquid & Gas Thermometers Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to measure temperature through pressure acting on mechanical element. Pivot Pointer Scale Pivot Pointer Scale Pivot Pointer Scale Volatile liquid Bellows Vapor Bellows Bellows Class IIA Class IIB Nonvolatile liquid Class IID Vapor Vapor Volatile liquid Bulb Volatile liquid Vapor Bulb Volatile liquid Nonvolatile liquid Bulb 8/42

9 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) Thermistor Thermistors are devices made of metal oxide which either increase in resistance with increasing temperature (a positive temperature coefficient) or decrease in resistance with increasing temperature (a negative temperature coefficient). 9/42

10 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) Resistance Temperature Detectors RTDs are devices made of pure metal wire (usually platinum or copper) which always increase in resistance with increasing temperature. 10/42

11 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) Thermistors: Material is generally a ceramic or polymer (oxides, glass,...) Both, negative and positive sensitivity Sensitivity is very high highly nonlinear Range -90 C to 130 C RTDs: Pure metal Only positive sensitivity Relatively insensitive (compared to thermistors) SCH is close to linear Range -200 C to 850 C 11/42

12 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) Resistance vs Temperature Thermistor or RTD Ohmmeter Steinhart Hart equation (for thermistors): Ohm s law: U = IR 1 T = A+Bln(R)+c[ln(R)]3, T = ( ln B R B R 0e T 0 ) 12/42

13 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) R wire = 1 Ω Ohmmeter Thermistor R ref = 50k Ω R wire = 1 Ω R total = 50,002 Ω white R wire = 1 Ω Ohmmeter RTD R ref = 100 Ω red R wire = 1 Ω R total = 102 Ω 13/42

14 Resistance Temperature Detectors 4-Wire Configuration of RTD white sensed voltage R wire = 1 Ω white excitation current R wire = 1 Ω Voltmeter RTD R ref = 100 Ω excitation current red sensed voltage red R wire = 1 Ω R wire = 1 Ω Current source 14/42

15 Resistance Temperature Detectors 3-Wire Configuration of RTD white R wire = 1 Ω Voltmeter B white excitation current R wire = 1 Ω Voltmeter A RTD R ref = 100 Ω red excitation current R wire = 1 Ω Current source V RTD = V A V B 15/42

16 Resistance Temperature Detectors white R wire = 1 Ω A V error + V RTD + V error excitation current V error 100 kω 100 kω RTD R ref = 100 Ω white V RTD excitation current V error R wire = 1 Ω V RTD + V error B 0 mv V RTD + V error R wire = 1 Ω V error + Voltmeter V RTD Current source red V error Transmitter connection to 2-wire RTD sensor Transmitter connection to 3-wire RTD sensor Transmitter connection to 4-wire RTD sensor 1 2 Loop pwr 1 2 Loop pwr 1 2 Loop pwr /42

17 Resistance Temperature Detectors Industrial Standard PT100 resistance of 100 Ω at 0 C (standard DIN/IEC 60751) Ω/ C Range -200 C to 0 C R t = R 0 ( 1 + αt + βt 2 + (t 100)γt 3) Range 0 C to 660 C R t = R 0 ( 1 + αt + βt 2) R 0 = 100Ω α = β = γ = /42

18 Resistance Temperature Detectors Industrial Standard PT100 Tolerances Classes Class AA = ±( t ) C Class A = ±( t ) C Class B = ±( t ) C Class C = ±( t ) C 18/42

19 Resistance Temperature Detectors Static Characteristics Thermistor vs. RTD vs. Thermocouple 19/42

20 Thermocouples Thermocouples Electromotive force (EMF) is formed at the junction of two dissimilar metals submitted to a temperature difference. Seebeck Effect combination of Thomson and Peltier effects Cheap Small and simple Wide temperature range 20/42

21 Thermocouples Iron Junction J 2 Voltmeter Junction J 1 Constantan Junction J 3 Copper Copper Iron Junction J 2 Voltmeter (made of constantan wire) Junction J 1 Constantan (no voltage) Junction Constantan Constantan J 3 21/42

22 Thermocouples Iron Junction J 2 Voltmeter Junction J 1 Copper ice/water bath Copper 22/42

23 Thermocouples Junction Sheathing Types of Sheaths Ceramic fill powder Protective sheath Exposed Grounded Ungrounded tip tip tip 23/42

24 Thermocouples Applicability Type Material Range [ C] Accuracy J Iron/Constantan -210 to C or % K Chromel/Alumel -270 to C or % T Copper/Constantan -270 to C or % E Chromel/Constantan -270 to C or +-0.5% N Nicrosil/Nisil -270 to C or % R Pt/Pt-13% Rhodium -50 to C or % S Pt/Pt-10% Rhodium -50 to C or % B Pt/Pt-30% Rhodium 0 to % 24/42

25 Thermocouples Types Type J Applicability: Junction materials: Iron/Constantan Range: -210 to 760 C Suitable: vacuum, reducing or inert atmospheres Non-suitable: oxidizing atmospheres Additional information: Iron oxidizes rapidly above 538 C Bare elements should not be exposed to sulfurous atmospheres 25/42

26 Thermocouples Types Type K Applicability: Junction materials: Chromel/Alumel Range: -270 to 1260 C Suitable: continuous oxidizing or neutral atmospheres Non-suitable: carbonic atmosphere Additional information: Most common thermocouple type Mostly used above 538 C Subject to failure if exposed to sulfur Carburization of chromel causes drift ( C) 26/42

27 Thermocouples Types Type T Applicability: Junction materials: Copper/Constantan Range: -270 to 370 C Suitable: any kind of atmosphere, differential measurement Non-suitable: higher temperatures Additional information: Higher accuracy but smaller range Both conductors are non-magnetic 27/42

28 Thermocouples Types Type E Applicability: Junction materials: Chromel/Constantan Range: -270 to 870 C Suitable: continuously oxidizing or inert atmospheres, cryogenic use Non-suitable: high temperatures Additional information: Highest thermoelectric output of the common thermocouple types Both conductors are non-magnetic 28/42

29 Thermocouples Types Type N Applicability: Junction materials: Nicrosil/Nisil Range: -270 to 1260 C Suitable: high temperatures exceeding 1200 C Additional information: Substitution for type K (higher stability) Resists high temperature oxidation Slightly more expensive than type K 29/42

30 Thermocouples Types Type R & S Applicability: Junction materials: Platinum/Platinum-Rhodium Range: -50 to 1480 C Suitable: high temperatures exceeding 1400 C Non-suitable: continued high temperature usage (grain growth), magnetic fields (without ceramic insulation or shielding tube) Additional information: Can potentially measure temperature up to 1700 C Type R is used in industry, type S in the laboratory Negative calibration drift caused by rhodium diffusion to the pure leg Type R and S are expensive 30/42

31 Thermocouples Types Type B Applicability: Junction materials: Platinum/Platinum-Rhodium Range: 0 to 1700 C Suitable: high temperature Non-suitable: negative temperatures [ C] Additional information: More expansive than other thermocouple types Same as R & S but has a lower output Less susceptible to grain growth Produces the same output at 0 C and 42 C 31/42

32 Thermocouples Static Characteristics 32/42

33 Thermocouples Color Codes 33/42

34 Thermocouples How to Choose? Thermocouples conform to the following specifications: Temperature range Accuracy Junction and tubing type Wire configuration Leadwire insulation Sheath material Sheath length 34/42

35 Thermocouples How to Choose? Example 1: Choose a thermocouple for temperature measurement in steam pipe, where severe pressure bumps often occur. Some additional information: Steam temperature varies from 100 C to 280 C High accuracy required Electromagnetic environment Measurement against reference temperature Example 2: Choose a thermocouple for temperature measurement in melting furnace used to manufacture alloy of copper and nickel. Some additional information: Copper melts at 1084 C and nickel at 1453 C Accuracy does not matter (+- 2 C is accurate enough) Carbonic atmosphere Stability must be retained over long period of time 35/42

36 Thermocouples Transmitters Transmitters are scalable and provide an opportunity to increase resolution by spreading the predicted measurement range over the entire 4-20 ma range. That is, the entire 4-20 ma can be applied to a small temperature range measured at the sensor. Some transmitters are field programmable, while others have a specified range, and are programmed at the factory. 36/42

37 Thermocouples Transmitters Junction J 2 Copper V input ADC Junction RTD or thermistor Copper µp J 1 ADC DAC 4-20 ma output 37/42

38 Thermocouples Transmitter Configuration What can be configured? Type of the sensor (J, K, N,...) Cold junction compensation Type and range of output (0 20 ma, 4 20 ma, 20 4 ma, 0 10V,...) Lower Range Value (LRV) of temperature Upper Range Value (URV) of temperature Tolerance of measuring range 38/42

39 Non-Contact Sensors Radiation Pyrometers Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits electromagnetic radiation (photons, or light) as a function of that temperature. This basic fact makes possible the measurement of temperature by analyzing the light emitted by an object. non-contact (can measure from distance) applicable mostly for solid material range up to 3500 C small measuring spot high accuracy 39/42

40 Radiation Pyrometers Stephan-Boltzmann Law: dq dt = eσat4 dq dt = Radiant heat loss rate (watts) e = Emissivity factor (unitless) σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant( W/m 2 K 4 ) A = Surface area (square meters) T = Absolute temperature (Kelvin) 40/42

41 Radiation Pyrometers Emissivity Emissivity can change from 0 (shiny mirror) to 1 (blackbody). 41/42

42 Radiation Pyrometers Reading Errors 42/42

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