Course grades. Computing Your Course Grade and GPA, or, Weighted Averages


 Gavin Greer
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Computing Your Course Grade and GPA, or, Weighted Averages The weighted average is one of the most common and useful formulas completely passed over introductory statistics classes. We are all familiar with the sample mean, x, where we add all the observations together then divide by the sample size: x 1 n Sometimes, though, we want to give certain values more inuence in determining the average. i1 Course grades A perfect example of this is when professors calculate your grade. Most courses have multiple assignments, and usually the assignments are worth dierent amounts. For example, a single homework assignment is not worth as much as the nal exam. One way to grade a course in this way is to make assignments worth dierent amount of points based on how important they are in the course grade calculation. If you want homework assignments to be worth 10% of what the nal is worth, you make the homework assignments 10 points a piece and the nal exam 100. Then you simply add all the points received during the quarter and divide by the total number of possible points. This starts to get complicated, though, if you have many assignments with dierent inuences. A second way to calculate grades is to allow every assignment to be graded out of any number of points, then weight the percentage received for each assignment in the correct manner. Suppose you are taking a class and the syllabus has this grade breakdown: Assignment Weight Homework 10% Midterm 20% Final Project 40% Final Exam 30% It's clear here that the nal project is a much more inuential part of your grade than the homework. Now suppose you received the following grades for each category: Assignment Weight Percentage Homework 10% 80% Midterm 20% 75% Final Project 40% 90% Final Exam 30% 85% To compute your course grade, you need to factor in the inuences of each assignment. This is done by converting the weights from percentages to proportions (10% becomes 0.10, 20% becomes 0.20, etc.), then multiplying your percentage for each category by the category weight and summing: course grade 0.10(80) (75) (90) (85)
2 So your overall grade is 84.5%. Notice that had you taken the simple sample mean of your category grades, you would have concluded your grade was 82.5: x 1 n i Your weighted grade is higher than the simple average because the grades on the nal assignments, which had more inuence, were better than the grades on the less inuential assignments. In this example, the calculations were simplied a bit because the weights summed to 1: What happens when the weights don't sum to 1? Let's look at your course grade going into the nal assignments, so you have only completed the homework and midterm. Computing your grade as before you would get 0.10(80) (75) or 23%, but this is clearly wrong  you received passing grades on both assignments! The 23% you see is actually 23% of the entire course grade, but you have only completed 30% of the work. In order to determine your actual grade, you need to divide by 0.30 (30%): or about 77%. This makes a lot more sense General formula for weighted averages In the course grade example above, the percentages received in each category are considered the data, or the x values, and the inuences (0.10, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.30) are called the weights. To nd the weighted average of a set of observations, multiply each observation by its weight, add the products together, then divide by the sum of the weights: x W i1 w i i1 w i In the rst example, the weights added to 1, or i1 w i 1, so the formula became simplied: x W w i i1 In determining which values are the observations ( ) and which are the weights (w i ), ask yourself, What do I want the average of? The answer to this question is your set of observations. GPA GPAs, or grade point averages, are also weighted averages. In calculating a GPA, the course grade (usually on a scale) is the observation, and the weight is the number of units or credits associated with the 2
3 course. Take the following grades from a student's quarter: Course Units Grade Intro Statistics Psychology Biology I To nd the student's GPA for the quarter, we need to use the units as the weights (w i ) and the grade as the observation ( ): GP A x W i1 w i i1 w i We could also expand the table to aid in our calculations: 4.0(3.7) + 3.0(4.0) + 5.0(3.0) Course Units Grade U nits Grade Intro Statistics Psychology Biology I Total: GPA: 41.8 / Again, this is a dierent result than we would have obtained by taking the sample average: x The actual GPA is lower because the student received lower grades in the courses worth more units. We can also use weighed averages to compute cumulative GPAs without going down to the level of individual courses. Suppose that before starting the quarter above, the student had a cumulative GPA of 3.1 after taking a total of 48 units. We create the following table: Time Units GPA Cumulative Current quarter Again, we use the units as weights. Now, though, the GPAs are the observation: 48(3.1) + 12(3.48) cumulative GP A The student's cumulative GPA has gone up, but it is not right in the middle of the previous GPA and this quarter's GPA because this quarter's GPA is based o of one fourth the units of the previous cumulative calculation. 3
4 Investment portfolios Weighted averages aren't jused used in computing grades. Another use of weighted averages are in investment portfolios. When people or corporations invest in the stock or bond market, they invest dierent amounts of money in various securities. Many websites will show investments as a pie chart. Suppose you invested in ve companies, with amounts given below: Company Amount Invested AT&T $5,000 Apple $4,000 Google $3,500 Starbucks $3,500 Ford $1,000 A pie chart of your portfolio would look like this: Apple AT&T Ford Google Starbucks Over the course of the year, you nd that AT&T went up 2%, Apple went up 10%, Google went down 4%, Starbucks went up 15%, and Ford went down 8%. How did your portfolio do overall? We want to nd the average change in our portfolio, so the individual stock changes are our observations, and the amount invested are the weights: Company Amount Invested (w i ) Change ( ) AT&T $5,000 2.% Apple $4, % Google $3,5004.% Starbucks $3, % Ford $1,0008.% Now the total change for the portfolio is x W i1 w i i1 w i 5000(2) (10) ( 4) (15) ( 8) % 4
5 So you have gained 4.7% on your total investments. For comparison, taking the sample average of the changes gives 3.0. The weighted average is higher becuase the biggest loss came from the company in which you had the smallest investment, so it had a relatively small eect on your portfolio. Weighted average and sample mean The common sample mean x 1 n xi is actually a special case of a weighted average where all observations are given the same weight. Let's say we have n observations and we give each the weight w i 1. Then the weighted average is x W i1 w i i1 w i i1 1 i1 1 1 n i i1 n x i1 You can check for yourself that there is nothing special about setting w i 1. Any weight will work as long as its the same for all observations since the weights in the numerator will cancel with the weights in the denominator. Weighted averages can also be used in place of sample means to make problems quicker when the observations only have a few unique values. Suppose we take a sample of 10 adults and ask how many pets they have at home. The responses are: To compute the sample mean, we take x 1 n i1 Alternatively, we can create a frequency table: 0, 0, 1, 1, 1 1, 1, 2 2, 2 1 ( ) Number of pets Frequency Then compute the weighted average using the frequencies as weights: x W 2(0) + 5(1) + 3(2)
6 We get the same answer. This occurs because in the weighted average, we are combining all the observations with the same number together. Lets compute x dierently: x 1 n i1 1 ( ) 10 1 [2(0) + 5(1) + 3(2)] 10 We see this is exactly the same formula as the weighted average. Generally speaking, when observations can be collected into sets with the same value, we can use the frequency of each set as weights to compute a weighted average and avoid long summations. 6
Conversions between percents, decimals, and fractions
Click on the links below to jump directly to the relevant section Conversions between percents, decimals and fractions Operations with percents Percentage of a number Percent change Conversions between
More informationUnit 1 Number Sense. In this unit, students will study repeating decimals, percents, fractions, decimals, and proportions.
Unit 1 Number Sense In this unit, students will study repeating decimals, percents, fractions, decimals, and proportions. BLM Three Types of Percent Problems (p L34) is a summary BLM for the material
More informationPreliminary Mathematics
Preliminary Mathematics The purpose of this document is to provide you with a refresher over some topics that will be essential for what we do in this class. We will begin with fractions, decimals, and
More information+ = has become. has become. Maths in School. Fraction Calculations in School. by Kate Robinson
+ has become 0 Maths in School has become 0 Fraction Calculations in School by Kate Robinson Fractions Calculations in School Contents Introduction p. Simplifying fractions (cancelling down) p. Adding
More informationAdding and Subtracting Fractions. 1. The denominator of a fraction names the fraction. It tells you how many equal parts something is divided into.
Tallahassee Community College Adding and Subtracting Fractions Important Ideas:. The denominator of a fraction names the fraction. It tells you how many equal parts something is divided into.. The numerator
More informationFractions. If the top and bottom numbers of a fraction are the same then you have a whole one.
What do fractions mean? Fractions Academic Skills Advice Look at the bottom of the fraction first this tells you how many pieces the shape (or number) has been cut into. Then look at the top of the fraction
More informationActivity 4 Determining Mean and Median of a Frequency Distribution Table
Activity 4 Determining Mean and Median of a Frequency Distribution Table Topic Area: Data Analysis and Probability NCTM Standard: Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data. Objective:
More informationPART A: For each worker, determine that worker's marginal product of labor.
ECON 3310 Homework #4  Solutions 1: Suppose the following indicates how many units of output y you can produce per hour with different levels of labor input (given your current factory capacity): PART
More information1 Lesson 3: Presenting Data Graphically
1 Lesson 3: Presenting Data Graphically 1.1 Types of graphs Once data is organized and arranged, it can be presented. Graphic representations of data are called graphs, plots or charts. There are an untold
More informationKey. Introduction. What is a Fraction. Better Math Numeracy Basics Fractions. On screen content. Narration voiceover
Key On screen content Narration voiceover Activity Under the Activities heading of the online program Introduction This topic will cover how to: identify and distinguish between proper fractions, improper
More information1. Portfolio Returns and Portfolio Risk
Chapter 8 Risk and Return: Capital Market Theory Chapter 8 Contents Learning Objectives 1. Portfolio Returns and Portfolio Risk 1. Calculate the expected rate of return and volatility for a portfolio of
More informationModels for Discrete Variables
Probability Models for Discrete Variables Our study of probability begins much as any data analysis does: What is the distribution of the data? Histograms, boxplots, percentiles, means, standard deviations
More informationCOLLEGE RETIREMENT EQUITIES FUND RULES OF THE FUND
COLLEGE RETIREMENT EQUITIES FUND RULES OF THE FUND Effective as of April 24, 2015 Attached to and made part of the CREF Contract or Certificate at its Date of Issue Note to participants: CREF's rules of
More informationPERPETUITIES NARRATIVE SCRIPT 2004 SOUTHWESTERN, A THOMSON BUSINESS
NARRATIVE SCRIPT 2004 SOUTHWESTERN, A THOMSON BUSINESS NARRATIVE SCRIPT: SLIDE 2 A good understanding of the time value of money is crucial for anybody who wants to deal in financial markets. It does
More informationFractions, decimals and percentages
Fractions, decimals and percentages Some notes for the lesson. Extra practice questions available. A. Quick quiz on units Some of the exam questions will have units in them, and you may have to convert
More informationGeometric Series and Annuities
Geometric Series and Annuities Our goal here is to calculate annuities. For example, how much money do you need to have saved for retirement so that you can withdraw a fixed amount of money each year for
More informationExample of a WellDesigned Course
Example of a WellDesigned Course 1. Context The subject matter: Accounting The title of the course: Federal Individual Income Taxes Typical class size: 1525 Mode of delivery: facetoface Type of institution:
More informationWelcome to Basic Math Skills!
Basic Math Skills Welcome to Basic Math Skills! Most students find the math sections to be the most difficult. Basic Math Skills was designed to give you a refresher on the basics of math. There are lots
More informationIndependent samples ttest. Dr. Tom Pierce Radford University
Independent samples ttest Dr. Tom Pierce Radford University The logic behind drawing causal conclusions from experiments The sampling distribution of the difference between means The standard error of
More informationStudy Skills in Mathematics
Study Skills in Mathematics From the Skills Team, University of Hull Studying maths Studying maths is different from studying other subjects. A very important part of learning maths is doing problems.
More informationAssociation Between Variables
Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi
More informationFractions and Decimals
Fractions and Decimals Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles December 1, 2005 1 Introduction If you divide 1 by 81, you will find that 1/81 =.012345679012345679... The first
More informationFUNDING INVESTMENTS FINANCE 238/738, Spring 2008, Prof. Musto Class 5 Review of Option Pricing
FUNDING INVESTMENTS FINANCE 238/738, Spring 2008, Prof. Musto Class 5 Review of Option Pricing I. PutCall Parity II. OnePeriod Binomial Option Pricing III. Adding Periods to the Binomial Model IV. BlackScholes
More informationGMAT SYLLABI. Types of Assignments  1 
GMAT SYLLABI The syllabi on the following pages list the math and verbal assignments for each class. Your homework assignments depend on your current math and verbal scores. Be sure to read How to Use
More informationFinding Rates and the Geometric Mean
Finding Rates and the Geometric Mean So far, most of the situations we ve covered have assumed a known interest rate. If you save a certain amount of money and it earns a fixed interest rate for a period
More information6.4 Normal Distribution
Contents 6.4 Normal Distribution....................... 381 6.4.1 Characteristics of the Normal Distribution....... 381 6.4.2 The Standardized Normal Distribution......... 385 6.4.3 Meaning of Areas under
More informationApril 4th, 2014. Flow C was 9 trillion dollars, Flow G was 2 trillion dollars, Flow I was 3 trillion dollars, Flow (XM) was 0.7 trillion dollars.
Problem Session I April 4th, 2014 Reference: Parkin, Introduction to economics, 2011 1. The rm that printed your Introduction to economics textbook bought the paper from XYZ Paper Mills. Was this purchase
More informationSTRUTS: Statistical Rules of Thumb. Seattle, WA
STRUTS: Statistical Rules of Thumb Gerald van Belle Departments of Environmental Health and Biostatistics University ofwashington Seattle, WA 981954691 Steven P. Millard Probability, Statistics and Information
More informationOne Period Binomial Model
FIN40008 FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS SPRING 2008 One Period Binomial Model These notes consider the one period binomial model to exactly price an option. We will consider three different methods of pricing
More informationCancelling a Fraction: Rules
Cancelling a Fraction: Rules The process of canceling involves taking fractions with larger numbers on top and bottom and rewriting those fractions with smaller numbers ensuring the value of the fraction
More informationCreate a free CRM with Google Apps
Create a free CRM with Google Apps By Richard Ribuffo Contents Introduction, pg. 2 Part One: Getting Started, pg. 3 Creating Folders, pg. 3 Clients, pg. 4 Part Two: Google Forms, pg. 6 Creating The Form,
More informationCommon Multiples. List the multiples of 3. The multiples of 3 are 3 1, 3 2, 3 3, 3 4,...
.2 Common Multiples.2 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of two numbers 2. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of a group of numbers. Compare the size of two fractions In this chapter,
More informationFractions Packet. Contents
Fractions Packet Contents Intro to Fractions.. page Reducing Fractions.. page Ordering Fractions page Multiplication and Division of Fractions page Addition and Subtraction of Fractions.. page Answer Keys..
More informationnot be half a page long! One sentence, or even a part of a sentence with a bullet point, is more than likely sufficient to get that point.
Tips of Answering a Level 3 Essay Question By Dr. Bruce Kuhlman, CFA, CAIA  Level 3 Manager First, a word of advice; answer the question that is asked, not the question you wanted or expected to see.
More informationMATH 115 Mathematics for Liberal Arts (3 credits) Professor s notes* As of June 27, 2007
MATH 115 Mathematics for Liberal Arts (3 credits) Professor s notes* As of June 27, 27 *Note: All content is based on the professor s opinion and may vary from professor to professor & student to student.
More informationSession 6 Number Theory
Key Terms in This Session Session 6 Number Theory Previously Introduced counting numbers factor factor tree prime number New in This Session composite number greatest common factor least common multiple
More informationUsing Excel 2000 to Create a WeightedGrade Grade Book
Using Excel 2000 to Create a WeightedGrade Grade Book This handout assumes that you already have familiarity with creating and copying formulas in Excel 2000. If you do not, you should consult our handout
More informationVieta s Formulas and the Identity Theorem
Vieta s Formulas and the Identity Theorem This worksheet will work through the material from our class on 3/21/2013 with some examples that should help you with the homework The topic of our discussion
More informationIntroduction to Macroeconomics (ECON 20B) Spring 2016
Introduction to Macroeconomics (ECON 20B) Spring 2016 Instructor: William Branch, SSPB 3279. Contact: 8244221 Email: wbranch@uci.edu Office hours: M,W 910, and by appointment. Course Objectives: This
More informationPreparing cash budgets
3 Preparing cash budgets this chapter covers... In this chapter we will examine in detail how a cash budget is prepared. This is an important part of your studies, and you will need to be able to prepare
More informationNormal distribution. ) 2 /2σ. 2π σ
Normal distribution The normal distribution is the most widely known and used of all distributions. Because the normal distribution approximates many natural phenomena so well, it has developed into a
More informationnorth seattle community college
INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS If we divide a whole number into equal parts we get a fraction: For example, this circle is divided into quarters. Three quarters, or, of the circle is shaded. DEFINITIONS: The
More informationGrade 4  Module 5: Fraction Equivalence, Ordering, and Operations
Grade 4  Module 5: Fraction Equivalence, Ordering, and Operations Benchmark (standard or reference point by which something is measured) Common denominator (when two or more fractions have the same denominator)
More informationCOMP 250 Fall 2012 lecture 2 binary representations Sept. 11, 2012
Binary numbers The reason humans represent numbers using decimal (the ten digits from 0,1,... 9) is that we have ten fingers. There is no other reason than that. There is nothing special otherwise about
More information! x sum of the entries
3.1 Measures of Central Tendency (Page 1 of 16) 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Median and Mode! x sum of the entries a. mean, x = = n number of entries Example 1 Find the mean of 26, 18, 12, 31,
More informationLesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams
Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect
More informationDecimal Notations for Fractions Number and Operations Fractions /4.NF
Decimal Notations for Fractions Number and Operations Fractions /4.NF Domain: Cluster: Standard: 4.NF Number and Operations Fractions Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
More informationSolar Energy MEDC or LEDC
Solar Energy MEDC or LEDC Does where people live change their interest and appreciation of solar panels? By Sachintha Perera Abstract This paper is based on photovoltaic solar energy, which is the creation
More informationMcKinsey Problem Solving Test Top Tips
McKinsey Problem Solving Test Top Tips 1 McKinsey Problem Solving Test You re probably reading this because you ve been invited to take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test. Don t stress out as part of the
More informationThe learning system used in ECE 1270 has been designed on the basis of the principles of
1270 COURSE PROCEDURE * Introduction The learning system used in ECE 1270 has been designed on the basis of the principles of learning 13. I won't give you a lengthy description of those principles here,
More informationInternational College of Economics and Finance Syllabus Probability Theory and Introductory Statistics
International College of Economics and Finance Syllabus Probability Theory and Introductory Statistics Lecturer: Mikhail Zhitlukhin. 1. Course description Probability Theory and Introductory Statistics
More informationPractice Set #5: Hedging with forwards vs. futures
Derivatives (3 credits) Professor Michel Robe Practice Set #5: Hedging with forwards vs. futures What to do with this practice set? To help students with the material, eight practice sets with solutions
More informationProbability Distributions
CHAPTER 5 Probability Distributions CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable 5.2 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution 5.3 The Binomial Distribution
More information[because] administrative charges / investment expenses / [and] asset management fees
11 Simple 401k Learn How to Increase Your Company's 401k Account Values by as Much as 30% to 40% The fees and expenses charged within your company's 401k plan could be costing your employees as much as
More informationSect 3.2  Least Common Multiple
Let's start with an example: Sect 3.2  Least Common Multiple Ex. 1 Suppose a family has two different pies. If they have 2 3 of one type of pie and 3 of another pie, is it possible to combine the pies
More informationHANDBOOK: HOW TO USE YOUR TI BA II PLUS CALCULATOR
HANDBOOK: HOW TO USE YOUR TI BA II PLUS CALCULATOR This document is designed to provide you with (1) the basics of how your TI BA II Plus financial calculator operates, and (2) the typical keystrokes that
More information3. Time value of money. We will review some tools for discounting cash flows.
1 3. Time value of money We will review some tools for discounting cash flows. Simple interest 2 With simple interest, the amount earned each period is always the same: i = rp o where i = interest earned
More informationActivity 1: Using base ten blocks to model operations on decimals
Rational Numbers 9: Decimal Form of Rational Numbers Objectives To use base ten blocks to model operations on decimal numbers To review the algorithms for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
More informationGCSE MATHEMATICS. 43602H Unit 2: Number and Algebra (Higher) Report on the Examination. Specification 4360 November 2014. Version: 1.
GCSE MATHEMATICS 43602H Unit 2: Number and Algebra (Higher) Report on the Examination Specification 4360 November 2014 Version: 1.0 Further copies of this Report are available from aqa.org.uk Copyright
More informationCancelling Fractions: Rules
Cancelling Fractions: Rules The process of cancelling involves taking fractions with large numerators and denominators (top and bottom numbers) and rewriting them with smaller numerators and denominators
More informationMidterm Advanced Economic Theory, ECO326F1H Marcin Pęski February, 2015
Midterm Advanced Economic Theory, ECO326F1H Marcin Pęski February, 2015 There are three questions with total worth of 100 points. Read the questions carefully. You must give a supporting argument and an
More informationStock Market Project
Company Name Your Name Stock Market Project Company Mission Statement Company Executive Members: Learning Objectives: The students will be able to *define the purpose and structure of the stock market.
More informationFraction Basics. 1. Identify the numerator and denominator of a
. Fraction Basics. OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the numerator and denominator of a fraction. Use fractions to name parts of a whole. Identify proper fractions. Write improper fractions as mixed numbers. Write
More information5544 = 2 2772 = 2 2 1386 = 2 2 2 693. Now we have to find a divisor of 693. We can try 3, and 693 = 3 231,and we keep dividing by 3 to get: 1
MATH 13150: Freshman Seminar Unit 8 1. Prime numbers 1.1. Primes. A number bigger than 1 is called prime if its only divisors are 1 and itself. For example, 3 is prime because the only numbers dividing
More informationCHOSUN UNIVERSITY SEOKGANG,PARK CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1: GRAPHICAL AND TABULAR DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUES
CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1: GRAPHICAL AND TABULAR DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUES MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The classification of student major (accounting, economics, management, marketing, other) is an example of a(n) a. nominal
More informationSome sequences have a fixed length and have a last term, while others go on forever.
Sequences and series Sequences A sequence is a list of numbers (actually, they don t have to be numbers). Here is a sequence: 1, 4, 9, 16 The order makes a difference, so 16, 9, 4, 1 is a different sequence.
More informationMathematics. Steps to Success. and. Top Tips. Year 6
Pownall Green Primary School Mathematics and Year 6 1 Contents Page 1. Multiply and Divide Decimals 3 2. Multiply Whole Numbers 3. Order Decimals 4 4. Reduce Fractions 5. Find Fractions of Numbers 5 6.
More informationMath Refresher. Book #2. Workers Opportunities Resources Knowledge
Math Refresher Book #2 Workers Opportunities Resources Knowledge Contents Introduction...1 Basic Math Concepts...2 1. Fractions...2 2. Decimals...11 3. Percentages...15 4. Ratios...17 Sample Questions...18
More informationUsing Proportions to Solve Percent Problems I
RP71 Using Proportions to Solve Percent Problems I Pages 46 48 Standards: 7.RP.A. Goals: Students will write equivalent statements for proportions by keeping track of the part and the whole, and by solving
More informationZ  Scores. Why is this Important?
Z  Scores Why is this Important? How do you compare apples and oranges? Are you as good a student of French as you are in Physics? How many people did better than you on a test? How many did worse? Are
More informationSystems of Linear Equations in Three Variables
5.3 Systems of Linear Equations in Three Variables 5.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Find ordered triples associated with three equations 2. Solve a system by the addition method 3. Interpret a solution graphically 4.
More informationLesson 13: Games of Chance and Expected Value
Student Outcomes Students analyze simple games of chance. Students calculate expected payoff for simple games of chance. Students interpret expected payoff in context. esson Notes When students are presented
More informationSouth Dakota. Opportunity Scholarship. Frequently Asked Questions
South Dakota Opportunity Scholarship Frequently Asked Questions Question: What is the difference between a Regents Scholar Diploma and the South Dakota Opportunity Scholarship? Answer: The Regents Scholar
More informationSimple Regression Theory II 2010 Samuel L. Baker
SIMPLE REGRESSION THEORY II 1 Simple Regression Theory II 2010 Samuel L. Baker Assessing how good the regression equation is likely to be Assignment 1A gets into drawing inferences about how close the
More informationFinancial Optimization ISE 347/447. Preliminaries. Dr. Ted Ralphs
Financial Optimization ISE 347/447 Preliminaries Dr. Ted Ralphs ISE 347/447 Preliminaries 1 Introductory Stuff Welcome! Class Meeting Time Office Hours TBD Surveys ISE 347/447 Preliminaries 2 What will
More informationDescriptive Statistics and Measurement Scales
Descriptive Statistics 1 Descriptive Statistics and Measurement Scales Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample
More informationHomework Margin Purchases. Dr. Patrick Toche
Homework Margin Purchases Dr. Patrick Toche A dagger indicates a possibly more challenging question. Maintenance Margin 1. You are bullish on Telecom stock. The current market price is $50 per share, and
More informationSharp EL733A Tutorial
To begin, look at the face of the calculator. Almost every key on the EL733A has two functions: each key's primary function is noted on the key itself, while each key's secondary function is noted in
More informationAreas of numeracy covered by the professional skills test
Areas of numeracy covered by the professional skills test December 2014 Contents Averages 4 Mean, median and mode 4 Mean 4 Median 4 Mode 5 Avoiding common errors 8 Bar charts 9 Worked examples 11 Box and
More informationEconomics 102 Homework #2 Due: February 1 st at the beginning of class
Economics 102 Homework #2 Due: February 1 st at the beginning of class Complete all of the problems. Please do not write your answers on this sheet. Show all of your work. 1. Suppose people only consume
More informationMeasuring the success of virtual tutoring
Measuring the success of virtual tutoring Avi Wiezel Del E. Webb School, of Construction Arizona State University Tempe, AZ, 852870204 Abstract Starting spring 1996, the Del E. Webb School of Construction
More informationSTA201TE. 5. Measures of relationship: correlation (5%) Correlation coefficient; Pearson r; correlation and causation; proportion of common variance
Principles of Statistics STA201TE This TECEP is an introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics. Topics include: measures of central tendency, variability, correlation, regression, hypothesis
More informationExamination II. Fixed income valuation and analysis. Economics
Examination II Fixed income valuation and analysis Economics Questions Foundation examination March 2008 FIRST PART: Multiple Choice Questions (48 points) Hereafter you must answer all 12 multiple choice
More informationThe Time Value of Money C H A P T E R N I N E
The Time Value of Money C H A P T E R N I N E Figure 91 Relationship of present value and future value PPT 91 $1,000 present value $ 10% interest $1,464.10 future value 0 1 2 3 4 Number of periods Figure
More informationProof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy
Experiment 04 Proof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy By Christian Redeker 27.10.2007 Contents 1.) Hypothesis...3 2.) Diagram...7 3.) Method...7 3.1) Apparatus...7 3.2) Procedure...7 4.)
More informationFractions. Cavendish Community Primary School
Fractions Children in the Foundation Stage should be introduced to the concept of halves and quarters through play and practical activities in preparation for calculation at Key Stage One. Y Understand
More information1Rules, Tips and Learning Objectives for Class
PSY 202 MIND AND SOCIETY Tuesdays and Thursdays from 4:005:50pm Columbia 150 Prof: Azim F. Shariff, PhD Office hours: Tuesday after class to 6:20 Tuesday 6:307pm By appointment Columbia 150 Knight Library
More information31 Misleading Graphs and Statistics
31 Misleading Graphs and Statistics It is a well known fact that statistics can be misleading. They are often used to prove a point, and can easily be twisted in favour of that point! The purpose of this
More informationBusiness Ethics. By: Aims Community College  Oil & Gas Dept.
Business Ethics By: Aims Community College  Oil & Gas Dept. Business Ethics By: Aims Community College  Oil & Gas Dept. Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col11561/1.3/ > C O N N E X I O N S Rice University,
More informationThe FOREX Master Plan
The FOREX Master Plan 1. Introduction First of all I need to say that I did not write this ebook for me, but for each and every one of you. I hope that it will be beneficial for everybody that reads it
More informationWriting Thesis Defense Papers
Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers
More information3.3 Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers
3.3 Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers In this section we consider addition and subtraction of both fractions and decimals. We start with addition and subtraction of fractions with the same denominator.
More informationReference: Gregory Mankiw s Principles of Macroeconomics, 2 nd edition, Chapters 10 and 11. Gross Domestic Product
Macroeconomics Topic 1: Define and calculate GDP. Understand the difference between real and nominal variables (e.g., GDP, wages, interest rates) and know how to construct a price index. Reference: Gregory
More informationPrime Factorization 0.1. Overcoming Math Anxiety
0.1 Prime Factorization 0.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the factors of a natural number 2. Determine whether a number is prime, composite, or neither 3. Find the prime factorization for a number 4. Find the GCF
More informationWRITING PROOFS. Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology
WRITING PROOFS Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology A theorem is just a statement of fact A proof of the theorem is a logical explanation of why the theorem is true Many theorems have this
More informationVIDEO 1: WHY IS IDENTYFING LEADS IMPORTANT?
VIDEO 1: WHY IS IDENTYFING LEADS IMPORTANT? Welcome to Identifying Quality Leads for Your Agency, part of the Sell section in the Agency Partner methodology. I m Elizabeth from the Agency Partner sales
More informationExaminer s report F7 Performance Management June 2016
Examiner s report F7 Performance Management June 2016 General Comments The June 2016 paper represented the final paper in the current format. There were two sections; Section A consisted of 20, 2mark
More informationPERCENTS  compliments of Dan Mosenkis
PERCENTS  compliments of Dan Mosenkis Percent Basics: Percents are connected to many ideas: fractions, decimals, proportions, relative amounts, and multiplicative change. You could say they are like the
More informationChapter 3 Review Math 1030
Section A.1: Three Ways of Using Percentages Using percentages We can use percentages in three different ways: To express a fraction of something. For example, A total of 10, 000 newspaper employees, 2.6%
More informationGraphical and Tabular. Summarization of Data OPRE 6301
Graphical and Tabular Summarization of Data OPRE 6301 Introduction and Recap... Descriptive statistics involves arranging, summarizing, and presenting a set of data in such a way that useful information
More information