Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow Changes and Challenges in Powertrain and ADAS Development

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1 Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow Changes and Challenges in Powertrain and ADAS Development November 2014 Dr. Alexander Heintzel, Angelina Hofacker

2 Agenda Two mega trends in the automotive industry: 1. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Connectivity Automated Driving 2. Future Powertrain Optimization of combustion engines Electrification of powertrain

3 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Road traffic deaths 2013: 1.24 million per year (WHO) European Union: Vision Zero Safety Comfort Connectivity Figure: Rinspeed

4 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) State-of-the-art systems: Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Pre-safe Brake/Collision Mitigation Brake System (CMBS) Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) Figure: Bosch

5 Automotive Technology - Today and Tomorrow November 2014 Dr. Alexander Heintzel, Angelina Hofacker Connected Car Safety & security Infotainment Risk: driver distraction Figure: Serg Nvns Fotolia 5

6 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) From ADAS to Automated Driving Requirements: Figure: Bosch

7 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Evolution of driving assistance from the perspective of the end customer More than a third of all Germans can imagine a future in which they will drive automatically. Figures: Valeo

8 Starting Point for E-Mobility : Climate Change Muir Glacier, Alaska (1941) Muir Glacier, Alaska (2004) Figures: 1941: Ulysses William O. Field; 2004: Bruce F. Molnia Glacier Photograph Collection, National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology

9 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector Only integrated strategies will be successful! Figure: IPCC

10 Objectives for Passenger Cars Source: ICCT

11 Overall and annual CO2 reduction rates required for passenger cars Source: ICCT

12 Future Powertrain Technical portfolio of gasoline engines from Daimler Figure: Daimler

13 Future Powertrain Technical portfolio of diesel engines from Daimler Figure: Daimler

14 Future Powertrain Combustion engine Optimizing the overall system Optimizing the engine itself Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) Downsizing or rightsizing (small-displacement engine, less cylinders, supercharging) Adjusting engine and transmission Lightweight Minimizing friction (material and lubricants) Alternative/synthetic fuels and lubricants Thermal management (charge exchange) Electrification

15 Future Powertrain Optimizing the engine itself: minimizing friction Spreading of the total energy over individual consumer loads or places at which losses occur using the example of a gasoline engine GDI TC 2.0 l 14 in NEDC Mechanical work available on the output side of the engine Energy loss through heat and gas Mechanical work exchange Crankshaft group Mainly main bearing Source: Federal-Mogul Piston group Conrod bearing Ring lamination parcel Piston and piston pin Share of each system in friction and auxiliary losses 2000 rpm Oil temperature 90 C Friction and auxiliary losses Other subsystems Valve train Oil/water pump Spring balancers Timing belt V-ribbed belt Fuel system

16 Future Powertrain Optimizing the engine itself: minimizing Friction Overview of relevant engine components and ways of reducing friction Figure: Daimler

17 Future Powertrain Optimizing the engine itself: minimising friction Example: bearings Source: Daimler

18 Future Powertrain Optimizing the overall system: thermal management Example: integrated cascaded charge air cooling developed by Mahle for diesel engines Source: Mahle

19 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? Figure: BMW ca. = approx. bis = up to * in the case of regenerative power generation

20 Challenges for BEV Battery cells and accumulators as cost factors Weight of vehicle (rises disproportionately in relation to performance) Interaction of powertrain components (electric powertrain, power electronics, heating/air conditioning, auxiliary electric consumers Range (management of range) Infrastructure Figure: Bosch

21 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? Degree of Electrification Combustion engine Electric engine Electric support + boost Electric range Figure: APL Landau

22 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? Strategy of Volkswagen Combustion Gasoline Alternative / regenerative Potential to reduce CO Alternative 2 / regenerative Battery Electric Fuel Cell Degree of electrification Pure electric drive Figure: Volkswagen

23 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? CO2 emission data for power generation 2010: 530 g CO 2 /kwh 2011: 560 g CO 2 /kwh 2012: 576 g CO 2 /kwh 2013: increasing Gross electricity production by form of energy (Germany) 20 [%] Source: BDEW 0 Hard coal Lignite coal Fuel oil, pump storage and others Natural gas Nuclear energy Renewable energies ,4 25,5 5,1 10,6 15, ,1 25,7 1,6 11,3 16,1 22,1

24 Combustion engine and electric drive: cost comparison Comparison of VM Smart and e-smart Vehicle type: 1.0 l gasoline mhd 0.8 l diesel e-smart e-smart Power output 52 kw 40 kw 35 kw (55kW) Consumption 4.2 l / 5.5 l 3.3 l / 4.3 l 15.1 kwh / 23.5 kwh (NEDC/real in liters/100km) CO 2 emissions 108 g / 142 g 98 g / 128 g 0 g or 87 g / 135 g (NEFZ/Real in g/km) Purchase price 10,825 12,095 18,910 without battery! Operating costs 65 (43 l B) 65 (47 l D) 65 (rental fee for battery) (gasoline: 1,50; diesel: 1,37) Range/ km 1,100 km 0 km Costs/month 82 ( ) ( 73 for electricity) (at 1,000 km) (32 cents/kwh) Total costs: 15,745 15,635 27,190 (60,000 km in 5 years) Figure: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Spicher, MOT GmbH

25 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? Fossil fuels and uranium Regenerative primary energy carriers Crude oil Natural gas Coal Uranium Water Solar radiation Biomass Gasoline Vegetable oil/pme LPG Liquefied gas CNG Compressed natural gas LNG Liquefied natural gas DME Dimethyl ester OME Oligomeric polyoxymethylene dimethyl ester CGH 2 Compressed hydrogen LH 2 Liquefied hydrogen PME Vegetable oil methyl ester PTG Power to gas PTL Powert to liquid Combustion engine Source: APL Landau Electric motor Fuel Cells

26 Future Powertrain = Electrified Powertrain? Several future powertrain technologies are available today. However, the question is: When will they achieve a sustainable market penetration? Today Combustion Engine Today - 5 years HEV, PHEV, RE, BEV years FCEV (Forecast: ATZ/MTZ)

27 Kaleidoscope of Powertrains There is no "one-fits-all" powertrain Real CO 2 reduction through electric driving is only possible if the energy is produced from renewable resources The age of the internal combustion engine is not over yet. This technology will remain the major source of global mobility for the next two decades at least

28 Credits Daimler AG Volkswagen AG BMW AG Robert Bosch GmbH Mahle GmbH Federal-Mogul Corporation MOT GmbH APL Automobil-Prüftechnik Landau GmbH Rinspeed AG Valeo S.A.

29

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31 Thank you for your attention!

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