Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages )

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1 Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction and kidney filtration. Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages ) 1. List the levels of organization in a multicellular organism, from smallest to largest. Smallest Largest Match the organ system with its function: Organ System 2. Nervous system 3. Skeletal system 4. Integumentary system 5. Endocrine system 6. Lymphatic system 7. Muscular system 8. Reproductive system 9. Respiratory system 10. Excretory system 11. Circulatory system 12. Digestive system Function a. Stores mineral reserves and provides a site for blood cell formation. b. Provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. c. Coordinates the body s response to changes in its internal and external environments. d. Helps produce voluntary movement, circulate blood, and move food. e. Controls growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction f. Eliminates wastes and maintains homeostasis. g. Serves as a barrier against infection and injury. h. Converts food so it can be used by cells. i. Helps protect the body from disease j. Produces reproductive cells k. Brings materials to cells, fights infection, and regulates body temperature 13. What are four types of tissues found in the human body. a. b. c. d.

2 14. The most abundant tissue in most animals is. 15. Circle the letter of the type of tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs. a. nervous c. epithelial b. connective d. muscle 16. Circle the letter of the type of tissue that connects bones to muscles. a. nervous c. epithelial Section 35 2 The Nervous System (pages ) This section describes the nervous system and explains how a nerve impulse is transmitted. b. connective d. integumentary 1. What is the function of the nervous system? 2. What are three types of neurons (nerve cells)? a. b. c. 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Sensory neurons carry impulses from the brain and the spinal cord to muscles and glands. 4. Label the following features in the drawing of a neuron: cell body, myelin sheath,

3 The Nerve Impulse (pages ) 6. Is the following sentence true or false? There are more sodium ions in the cytoplasm than in the fluid outside the cell. 7. The difference in electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron is called its. 8. How does a nerve impulse begin? 9. In which direction does a nerve impulse travel? 10. Circle the letter of the choice that describes an action potential. a. Reversal of charges due to the flow of positive ions into a neuron b. Increase in negative ions in a neuron due to the flow of potassium out of the cell c. Change to a negative charge due to the flow of sodium ions out of a neuron d. Reversal of charges due to the flow of negative ions into a neuron 11. The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron is called the. 12. How does a nerve impulse follow the all-or-nothing principle? 13. Circle the letter of the term that refers to the location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell. a. axon b. dendrite c. synapse d. node 14. What are neurotransmitters? 15. Describe what happens when an action potential arrives at an axon terminal. 16. Describe the sequence of events from establishing the resting potential to the transmission of a nerve impulse to the next neuron and the reestablishment of the resting potential. Include discussions of channel proteins, sodium gates and ions, and potassium gates and ions as well as diffusion and active transport.

4 17. Briefly describe the different organs and tissues of the Nervous system: Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem (Pons and Medulla Oblongata) Thalmus Hypothamlus Spinal cord PNS (Peripheral Nervous system) Sensory division Motor division Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Section 36 1 The Skeletal System (pages ) 1. The skeleton of a newborn baby is composed almost entirely of a type of connective tissue called. 2. The network of fibers in cartilage is made from two proteins called a. b. 3. Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called. 4. Cells that create bone tissue are called while bone cells that maintain the cellular activity of bone are called and bones cells that break down bone tissue are called.

5 5. The tough connective tissue that connects bones to bones is called. Section 36 2 The Muscular System (pages ) 6. List the three different types of muscle tissue a. b. c. 7. What characteristics do striated muscle cells have? 8. What characteristics do smooth muscle cells have? 9. What characteristics do cardiac muscle cells have? Muscle Tissue Type Striated/Not Striated What It Controls Skeletal Striated Not striated Involuntary movements Cardiac 10. Circle the letter of the choice that lists the muscle structures from largest to smallest. a. Myofibrils, filaments, muscle fibers b. Muscle fibers, myofibrils, filaments c. Muscle fibers, filaments, myofibrils d. Myofibrils, muscle fibers, filaments 11. What are the names of the two main filaments that make up a myofibril? a. b. 12.Explain how muscle contraction is controlled in skeletal muscles. Include the neuromuscular junction, motor neuron, acetylcholine, calcium ions, and acetylcholine destroying enzymes (cholinesterase)and active transport. 13. What is a tendon?

6 Section 36 3 The Integumentary System (pages ) 14. What is the largest organ of the body and a member of the integumentary system? 15. Describe the most interesting aspects of the following tissues of the skin. a. Epidermis i. Keratin ii. Melanin/melanocytes b. Dermis c. Nails and hair Section 38 3 The Excretory System (pages ) 1. The name of the pair of organs that are designed to help the body excrete urea is what? 2. The kidney has three tissue regions, what are two of them called? 3. What is the name of the million or so functional units that do the waste filtration in the kidney? 4. What substances diffuse out of a glomerulus? 5. Briefly describe the 3 stages the filtrate experiences as it flows from the bowman s capsule to the collecting duct? glomerulus Bowman s capsule Capillaries 6. What is the material called that remains after reabsorption? 7. When does active transport take place and what does it do? Vein tubule Artery Collecting duct Loop of Henle

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