1 INVESTIGATION ON POTENTIAL CONTAMINATED SITES OF ABANDONED FACTORIES IN TAIWAN I-Chun Chen, Pey-Horng Liu, Chia-Fang Chang, and Shen-De Chen Industrial Technology Research Institute Rm. 217, Bldg. 6, 21 Kuang Fu Road, Sec. 2, Hsinchu, Taiwan 00, R.O.C. ABSTRACT According to the statistic on abandoned factories from Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs in Taiwan, there are more than 100,000 shutdown factories until 200. For investigating soil and groundwater pollution from abandoned factories, Taiwan EPA held the project to set up screening principle to prioritize the inventory for investigating the high-contaminated potential industries. In this project, we established quantitative screening system built by objective and subjective factors and choose 15 abandoned factories from the prior lists of these to execute two-phase soil and groundwater pollution investigation following ASTM Phase Ι and Π investigation. Through the quantitative screening systems, we found out 5 of 15 above abandoned factories exceeded the soil or groundwater pollution control standards. It s proved that we could find the high-contaminated potential industries form numbers of shutdown factories by this available and economical screening principle. The results show this system is effective while sieving high-potentially contaminated abandoned factories in the future.
2 1. Introduction Because of rapid change of industrial structure in Taiwan during the past decades, many factories which are labor-intensive and short industrial life cycle have been closed or removed to other countries. It resulted in many shutdown factories around Taiwan. In addition, many industrial areas were very close to residential districts due to insufficiency of urban planning. While they are abandoned in a random manner, they usually discharged pollutant to the environment and harmed the nearby residents health. Furthermore, due to the lacks of mechanism to verify the status of these shutdown factories, the authorities encountered great difficulties to look for the responsible people and to trace pollution source from abandoned factories. This is an obstacle to soil and groundwater investigation of abandoned factories. For understanding the pollution situations of these abandoned factories, the project supplied the available and economical quantitative screening system to resolve this critical issue. It is the priority to sieve high-potentially contaminated industries for investigating soil and groundwater by this principle. In this project, the implementation shall include three aspects as below: (1) collecting information about domestic abandoned factories; (2) prioritizing the site investigation of abandoned factories; () executing two-phase sampling of soil and groundwater for abandoned factories. 2. The Status of Abandoned Factories in Taiwan According to the statistic on abandoned factories from Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs in Taiwan, there are more than 100,000 shutdown factories until 200. The distribution of abandoned factories is shown in Fig 1. Among those, metalwork industry and plastic industry is relatively high percentage, 19% and 17%, respectively. It reveals that these kinds of industries have the attributes of labor-intensive, short industrial life cycle and high switch rate in Taiwan. Although we could understand the quantity of abandoned factories with each industry from above statistic, we couldn t confirm the land from above abandoned factories whether has been transferred to other user now. The main reason is the authority didn t take proper measures for them Furthermore, due to the limited information such as only company name, address, start-up date and operation cancellation date etc., it is difficult to provide us sufficient evidences for investigation of soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, the project would narrow down investigation data of abandoned factories and set up quantitative screening system to sieve the priority of the high-potentially contaminated abandoned factories. Textile industry Leatherware industry Wood Furniture industry Paper-making industry 9% 8% 19% 12% % 10% 17% 6% 4% % 2% % 0% 2% Basic Chemical industry Petrochemical industrial Petroleum Refining industry Rubber industry Plastic industry Basic Metal industry Metalwork industry Computer industry Eelectronic Products industry Machine-driven industry Fig 1: The Distribution of Abandoned Factories in Taiwan
3 . Screening Criteria We set up two-phase screening principle. The first, we sieved high-potential contaminated industries. According to experiences of investigating the abandoned factories in the United States , in Western Europe , and in Japan, the top 9 high-potentially contaminated industries include(1)basic Chemical Industry;(2)Petrochemicals Industry;() Chemical Synthesis, Plastic and Rubber Materials Industry;(4)Dyeing Industry;(5) Pesticides and Herbicides Industry;(6)Petroleum Refining Industry;(7)Basic Metal Industry; (8)Metal Surface Processing Industry;(9)Computer Industry, Electronic Products Industry, and Machine-Driven Industry. Table 1 reveals pollution incidents of 9 high-potentially contaminated industries. The project shall focus on above industries to search more detail information, such as process records over the years and their operation scale from these abandoned factories. Finally, we choose 15~20 factories which have production on large scale among each industries. The second phase would select about 175 for initial investigation and further update factory information in the database (such as whether it is located in environmental sensitive area, whether were obvious pollution, whether it is moved etc.). With the supplementary information from the two-phase investigation, an extensive quantitative screening system was established to select 15 candidate factories for the two-phase investigation. This quantitative screening system included objective attributes, like operation scale, pollution type and land region, and subjective attributes like EPA s rating and industrial experts rating . The system also adopted weight to each factor, so objective data and subjective data were in a ratio of 7: and the full score was 100. Table 2 is the allocation of screening factors. Because of the quota restriction in the contract, the project choose only 15 priority abandoned factories with high-potentially contaminated to execute two-phase soil and groundwater investigation after estimating each screening score of abandoned factories. 15 abandoned factories included 7 categories industries (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G).A is Basic Chemical Industry with factories; B is Petrochemicals Industry with 4 factories; C is Plastic and Rubber Materials Industry with 2 factories; D is Pesticides and Herbicides Industry with factories; E is Basic Metal Industry with 1 factories; F is Metal Surface Processing Industry with 1 factories; G is Electronic Parts and Components Industry with 1 factories, etc.
4 Industrial Classification Table 1: Pollution Incidents of 9 High-Potentially Contaminated Industries Operating Information of Toxicity Material 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, Basic Chemical Industry Pentachlorophenol 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, Petrochemicals Industry Pentachlorophenol, Hexachlorobenzene, Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, Carbon Tetracholoride, Benzene, Vinyl chloride, Chloromethane, Cis-1,2-dichloroethylene Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, Cis-1,2-dichloroethylene Enthylbenzene, Xylenes, Trichloroethene, Tetrachloroethylene, Toluene, Chloroform, Chlorobenzene, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Aniline, O-Toluidine, m-toluidine, Benzidine, Benzene, Chloroform, Chromic Acid, Dimethyl Formamide, Methyl Isobutyl Ketone, Sodium Dichromate, Sodium Chemical Synthesis, Plastic Chromate, Acrylamide, Formaldehyde, and Rubber Materials Industry 1-Chloro-2,-Epoxypropane, Allyl Alcohol, Benzotrichloride, Hydrazine, Cadmium Oxide, Arsenic Trioxide, Ethylene Oxide, Butadiene, Formaldehyde, O-Dichlorobenzene, 1-Chloro-2,-Epoxypropane, Phthalic Anhydride, Carbon Disulfide, Dimethyl Formamide, N-Butyl Acrylate, Butyraldoxime, Triethylamine, Vinyl Acetate, Chloroacetic Acid, Diethanolamine 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, Dyeing Industry 1,-Dichlorobenzene,,-Dichlorobenzidine, Naphthalene Pesticides and Herbicides Industry 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene, 1,-Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, Pentachlorophenol, Hexachlorobenzene, Carbon Tetracholoride, Naphthalene, Chloromethane, Chlorobenzene, DDT, Paraquat, Parathion, Carbofuran, Chlordane, Diazinon, Dieldrin, Endrin, Endosulfan, Aldrin, Toxaphene, Heptachlor, Methamidophos, 2,4-D, As High-Potential Contaminated Industries Contaminated accidents in Taiwan Contaminated accidents in other country - Petroleum Refining Industry Naphthalene Basic Metal Industry Trichloroethene, Tetrachloroethylene, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn Metal Surface Processing Industry Computer Industry Electronic Products Industry Machine-Driven Industry 1,-Dichlorobenzene, Enthylbenzene, Xylenes, Trichloroethene, Tetrachloroethylene, Toluene, Chloroform, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Ethylene, Cyanide, Chromic Acid, Potassium Dichromate Enthylbenzene, Xylenes, Trichloroethene, Tetrachloroethylene, Toluene, Chloroform, Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sodium Dichromate, Ammonium Dichromate, Sodium Cyanide, Potassium Cyanide, Chromic Acid, Dichloromethane, Acrylamide, Benzene, Carbon Tetracholoride, Formaldehyde, Ethylene Glycol, Ethyl Ether, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro Ethane, Dimethyl Formamide, Diethanolamine, Methyl Isobutyl Ketone, Triethylamine, Thiourea -
5 Table2: The Allocation of Screening Factors Item Content Score Description Objective Factors A Operation Scale 18 A1 Land Area 6 range score /4A1 6 1/2A1</ /4A1<1/2 A1<1/4 1.5 A2 Funds 6 range score /4A2 6 1/2A2</ /4A2<1/2 A2<1/4 1.5 A Operation Period 6 range score /4A1 6 1/2A1</ /4A1<1/2 A1<1/4 1.5 B Contaminated Conditions 0 B1 Occurred Industrial Safety Accident Yes is ; No is 0 B2 Water Contamination Yes is ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 B Toxic Chemical Substance Operation Yes is ; No is 0 B4 Waste Contamination Yes is ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 B5 Illegality Record in EPA Yes is ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 B6 Contaminated Accident 8 Yes is 8 ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 B7 Closed Because of Leakage of Toxic Chemical Substance 7 Yes is 7 ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 C Land Region 20 C1 Located at Drinking Water Protection 4 Yes is 4 ; No is 0 C2 Used Groundwater 4 Yes is 4 ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 C Nearby the Residential Site and farm 4 Yes is 4 ; No is 0 C4 Land Reused 4 Yes is 4 ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 C5 Doesn t Located at Industrial Region 4 Yes is 4 ; No is 0 Subjective Factors D EPA s Rating 15 E Industrial Experts Rating 17 E1 Built Up or Closed Down Before EPA Established 5 Before is 2 ;After is :Uncertainty is 1 E2 Short Industrial Life Cycle Yes is ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 E Potentiality of Contamination Industries 4 High is 4 ; Middle is 2 ; Low is 0 E4 Used Recalcitrant Organic Yes is ; No is 0 ; Uncertainty is 1 Compounds E5 Batch Process 2 Yes is 2 ; No is 0 Total 100
6 4. Two-Phase Soil and Groundwater Pollution Investigation The project sampling and investigation process flow is in compliance with ASTM phase I and II Site Assessment [1, 2, ]. First, information like registered factory operation data, industrial process and land area obtained from aerial photos was used to determine the sample quantity for each factory. Each factory had 5 ~11 soil samples and groundwater samples. The analytical targets focused on chemicals ever in the operation and possible by-products from the process. Assisted by FID and PID screening, identification of pollution characteristics was conducted with on-site screening data, and verification of sampling location and depth was also conducted. The results from Phase I are shown in Table, which indicates highly polluting factories included A. 2 in Basic Chemical Industry, B. 1 in Petrochemicals Industry, C. 1 in Plastic and Rubber Materials Industry, D. in Pesticides and Herbicides Industry, E. 1 in Basic Metal Industry, F. 1 in Metal Surface Processing Industry. Finally, 9 companies were included in Phase II investigation, which further identified their pollution source and pollution range for the high pollution potential area. Each factory had 5~14 soil samples and groundwater samples. The results from Phase II are shown in Table 4, which indicates 5 abandoned factories exceeded pollution control standard. They included A. 2 in Basic Chemical Industry, B. 1 in Petrochemicals Industry, D. 1 in Pesticides and Herbicides Industry, F. 1 in Metal Surface Processing Industry. In summary, the above investigation and verification results, except the pollution situation for B.2 abandoned factory which the groundwater pollutant was from nearby factory, three management strategies were proposed for the other 9 factories with different pollution type. 1. If the pollution type is improper disposal, including A., C.1, D.2 and E.1, we suggested the owner of factory clear out the wastes first and then check the pollution of soil and groundwater. 2. It is suggested for the factories which have obvious soil and groundwater contamination, including A.1, B.4 and F.1 should follow the soil and groundwater regulation to remedy within a deadline.. It is suggested for the low pollution factories, including D.1 and D. should continue monitoring by a frequency once every quarter during a period of two to three years.
7 Industries Code Screening Score Analytical Targets and Numbers of Soil A.1 55 Metals 11 A A SVOCs TPH B VOCs SVOCs Table : The Results of Phase I Analytical Targets and Numbers of Groundwater Phenols, Phenols, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phenols, Phenols, - - B.2 44 VOCs TPH 9 VOCs, Phenols, - B VOCs SVOCs 5 B SVOCs 10 VOCs, SVOCs, Phenols, VOCs, SVOCs, Phenols, C VOCs SVOCs 6 VOCs SVOCs C.2 42 VOCs SVOCs 8 D.1 70 D.2 44 D. 41 Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Endosulfan Dieldrin, Methamidophos, Paraquat SVOCs, Pesticide VOCs, SVOCs, Phenols, Parathion, Methamidophos, Phenols, Methamidophos, Paraquat, Phenols, Pesticide, Phenols, - - Description Hg in soil and Hg, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and vinyl chloride in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard (1)TPH, As, and Cr in soil and benzene in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard. (2)There is high concentration of cyclohexane in groundwater. 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard 1,2-dichloroethane in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard There is high concentration of As and P,P'-DDT in soil Cr in soil exceeded pollution control standard There is high concentration of toxaphene in soil. Phenols, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, TPH in soil exceeded E Metals, TPH 10 pollution control standard Phenols, F There is high concentration of Zn in soil. TPH G SVOCs
8 Industries Code Screening Score Analytical Targets and Numbers of Soil A.1 55 Metals 14 A Metals, VOCs, TPH 10 B Metals, VOCs, SVOCs, TPH Table 4: The Results of PhaseⅡ 8 Analytical Targets and Numbers of Groundwater Phenols,, TSS Nitrate, Nitrite, Phenols,,TSS Phenols,, TSS C VOCs SVOCs 8 VOCs SVOCs - D.1 70 As, SVOCs, Chlordane, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Endosulfan D.2 44 Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb 8 D. 41 Metals, Toxaphene 5 E Metals, TPH 10 F Metals, VOCs TPH 7 5. Conclusions 8 As, SVOCs, Chlordane, Diazinon, Methamidophos, Paraquat, Parathion, Toxaphene Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Methamidophos, Paraquat Metals, Toxaphene, Phnols,,TSS Metals, TPH, Phnols,, TSS Phenols,, TSS Description Hg in soil and 1,1-dichloroethylene, benzene, and vinyl chloride in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard TPH, Cr, As in soil exceeded pollution control standard trichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene in groundwater exceeded pollution control standard Cr, Ni, and Cu in soil exceeded pollution control standard Cu and Zn in soil exceeded pollution control standard The project adopted level-by-level screening mode and established quantitative screening system by comparing on-site investigation data with the environmental database. Through the quantitative screening systems, we found out 5 of 15 above abandoned factories exceeded the soil or groundwater pollution control standards. It s proved that we could find the high-contaminated potential industries form numbers of shutdown factories by this available and economical screening principle. The results show this system is effective while sieving high-potentially contaminated abandoned factories in the future. REFERENCE 1. ASTM E , Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: PhaseⅠEnvironmental Site Assessment Process. 2. ASTM E190-97, Guide for Environmental Site Assessments: PhaseⅡEnvironmental Site Assessment Process.. ASTM E , Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Transaction Screen Process. 4. Management of contaminated sites in Western Europe, Topic report No 1/1999, June U.S. EPA, Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report (Tenth Edition), Statistical Data of Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan,
9 7. Industry & Technology Intelligence Services,