Year 9 It s My Body WS2 Nervous System - Neurons Name: Date:

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1 Year 9 It s My Body WS1 Nervous System Name: Date: 1. What is the function of the sensory nerves? Sensory nerves carry messages from changes inside the body (receptors detecting chemical changes) and outside the body (receptors in skin) to the brain or spinal cord. 2. What is the function of the motor nerves? Motor nerves carry messages from the brain or spinal cord to the effector (muscles or glands) and allow the appropriate responses to the changes in the environment. 3. Describe what messages are sent to the nervous system when you go outside wearing a sweater on a very hot day. The receptors in the skin detect the high temperature of the external environment and send electrical impulses (messages) via the sensory neuron to the brain. The brain makes decision that it is too hot and needs to take off the sweater. Messages is then sent to the effector (muscles) via the motor neuron and response by removing sweater. the neuron that receives impulses is called the dendrites 5. The part of 6. The part of the neuron that conducts away the electrical impulse away from the body cell is called the axon. 7. The gap between the dendrites of one neuron and the axon endings (terminal endings) of another neuron is called the synapse. Year 9 It s My Body WS2 Nervous System - Neurons Name: Date:

2 1 dendrites 2 cell body 3. myelin 4. Axon 5. Terminal branches

3 Answer 1 muscle cells, skin cells (epithelial cells), blood cells 2. The structure cytoplasm in a neuron forms long projection (axon) hence is different from a normal cell. 3. Speed travelling at 100 m/s (how many seconds would you need to run 100 m?) 4. Dendrites protrude out of the cell body so they can take information into the cell body. 5. Myelin (fat) forms an insulating sheath and protects the axon. 6. Messages leave the neuron from the terminal branches. 7. Sensory neuron carries electrical impulses from the receptors under the skin to the spinal cord or brain. Motor neuron carries electrical impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector (muscles) so that the organism can response to the changes in the environment.

4 Year 9 It s My Body WS3 Nervous System - Brain Name: Date: Cerebrum Medulla Cerebellum Name Function A. Medulla Controls involuntary functions: Breathing, heart beat, blinking, sneezing B. Cerebrum Control senses, thought, memory, learning C. Cerebellum Control voluntary muscles, walking, balancing Activity Tasting hamburger Artistic ability Kicking a soccer Rate of breathing Tying shoe laces Part of the brain cerebrum cerebrum Cerebrum and cerebellum Medulla (or mid brain) Cerebrum and cerebellum

5 Name: Year 9 Nervous System Brain Date:

6 Action Controlled by cerebrum cerebellum Medulla (mid brain and brain stem) 1 Hearing 2 Seeing 3 Moving the body 4. Heart beat 5 Tasting 6 Balance 7 Sneezing 8 Learning 9 Breathing 10 speaking 5 memory 6 Blinking

7 vision loss/impairment Memory loss Speech impairment, hearing loss, cannot taste or smell. bone Skull Hard covering Not to be distracted by other senses

8

9 Name: Year 9 Nervous System Reflex Arc Date: A reflex action is a rapid (voluntary) response to a stimulus. There are three different types of neuron: sensory neurons, which carry the impulse generated by the stimulus to the central nervous system; interneurons, which then carry the impulse through the central nervous system; and motor neurons, which take the impulse from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or glands. The response from these effectors depends on the original stimulus. For example, if you put your hand on the hotplate of your stove, the receptors in the skin on your hand will immediately send a signal via your sensory and motor neurons to the effectors in your arm muscles. The response from the effectors tells your arm muscles to move your hand away from the hotplate. The gaps between the neurons, called synapses, have to be crossed by the impulse. Chemical compounds called neurotransmitters are produced in little pockets at the end of a neuron's axon. They carry the impulse across the synapse to the next neuron. The message is then converted back into an electrical impulse, which continues down that axon until it reaches the next synapse or finishes its travels at the effector. The pathway shown in the diagram above is known as a reflex arc. No conscious thought is required for this type of action. The impulse follows a direct route from the receptor to the effector with an interconnecting link in the spinal cord. Additional impulses are sent to the appropriate part of the brain to keep it `informed' of what happened. Questions: 1. What is a reflex action? A rapid involuntary response to stimulus. 2. We automatically blink our eyelids when an object approaches the eye. With reference to a diagram (reflex arc), how this happens. The receptors in the eye lid send a signal via sensory neuron and motor neurons to effectors to move the muscles in the eye lid to move (blink). 3. What type of nerve carries electrical impulses away from the spinal cord. Motor neuron. 4. What is a reflex arc? The pathway to allow electrical impulse to travel in a direct route from receptor via sensory neuron to the interconnecting neuron then via the motor neuron to the effector (muscles). The messages do not need to travel to the

10 brain for a response instead a short cut through the spinal cord allowing automatic (fast) response.

11 Answer: 1 sensory neuron, motor neuron and inter neuron 2 sensory neuron 3. Motor neuron 4. Inter neuron 5. Synapse 6. Electrical ; chemical substances called neurotransmitters 7.reflex arc

12 PART 1: The Glands and their Associated Hormones Name: Date: Endocrine System Link: Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland pancreas Adrenal gland thymus ovaries testis 1. Label the following 8 Endocrine glands Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland pancreas testis ovary

13 Insulin and blood sugar control Homeostasis: Name: Year 9 Date: ion_alltopic=1 When your blood sugar levels fall below the ideal level your pancreas releases a different hormone called glucagon. Glucagon makes your liver break down glycogen, converting it back into glucose which can be used by the cells.

14 Answer to: Question 1: Your pancreas constantly monitors and controls your blood sugar levels using two hormones. The best known of these is insulin. When your blood sugar levels rise after a meal your pancreas releases insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken into the cells of your body where it is used in respiration. It also allows glucose to be converted to glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscles. Year 9 It s My Body : The Endocrine System Name: Date:

15 Use the information the chart above to complete each of the following statements. 1. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland. 2. The hormones from the thymus gland aid in the body s defense against infections. 3. When the body is under stress, the hormones from adrenal help meet the emergency. 4. The islands of Langerhans produces insulin, which regulates glucose in the body. 5. Hormones from the testes cause a young man s voice to become deeper. 6. Secretions of the parathyroid control the level of calcium in the bloodstream. 7. The rate of metabolism is regulated by the secretions from the thyroid gland. 8. Hormones from the ovaries influence the development of the adult sex characteristics of young women.

16 Revision: Human Body system Overview summary of Human body system

17 Revision It s My Body The Human System 1. Label the diagram below. Digestive system. 1 esophagus or oesophagus (sometimes spelt this way.) 2 liver 3 stomach 4 small intestine 5 large intestine 2. Use the words given below to fill in the blanks. Small intestine, teeth, large intestine, digestion, esophagus water, gastric juice, small intestine, saliva, peristalsis a. water_ makes up two thirds of your body.

18 b. Small intestine_ breaks down food so that energy and nutrients can be obtained from food for the human body to do work. c. teeth_ in the mouth help to cut and grind food into tiny bits. d. peristalsis_: series of muscle contractions that occur in your digestive tract. e. Small intestine_ which is a 6 to 7 metres long tube where digestion takes place. f. salive (chemicals) in the mouth help to break down food large food particles (starch) into smaller particles (glucose). (Note saliva contains chemical ptyalin to break down starch to sugar) g. From the mouth, food then moves down the gullet or esophagus into the stomach. h. In the stomach, the gastric juice containing enzymes_ (chemicals) helps to further breaks down the food particles. i. In the _small intestine_, very tiny particles of food (such as fats, glucose, minerals) are absorbed and carried in the blood stream. j. In the _large intestine_, water and some minerals are absorbed. Undigested materials are expelled from the body through the anus as stools (lumps of faeces) Circulatory System 3. (a)label the diagram of the heart given below. Carries blood from lungs. a. Left atrium Right atrium e valve Left ventricle septum Right ventricle (b)the blood from the lungs picks up oxygen and flow into which two chambers? Left/right The atria and ventricles work as a team - the atria fill with blood, then dump it into the ventricles. The ventricles then squeeze, pumping blood out of the heart. While the ventricles are squeezing, the atria refill and get ready for the next contraction. 4. Use the words given below to fill in the blanks. Note atria is plural for atrium. arteries, atria, capillaries, heart platelets blood, veins, ventricles, valves a) _blood_ carries water, oxygen, nutrients from digestion to cells around the body. It also removes waste material and carbon dioxide from our body. b) Blood is made up of white and red blood cells, platelets and plasma. c) arteries are tubes that carry blood away from the heart d) vein are tubes that return blood to the heart e) capillaries connect arteries and veins. They are tiny tubes that exchange food, oxygen and wastes between blood and body cells. f) heart is an organ made up of muscle and it has a important role in the circulatory system g) The heart has four chambers and the upper chambers are called the right and left atria

19 h) The two lower chambers of the heart are the right and left ventricles. Each chamber is a little pump. The pumping pushes blood all around your body. i) _valves prevents the blood flowing in the wrong way in the heart. Excretory System 5. Label the diagram below: 6. Use the words given below to fill in the blanks. bladder, excretion, kidneys, renal artery, ureter, urethra a. excretion is removal of waste such as urea from the human body. b. Urea can be harmful to our body and it can be removed by traveling in blood to the kidneys (organ). Urea is filtered in the kidneys, then mixed with water and passed out of the body as urine. c. _renal artery a tube carrying blood to the kidney; d. ureter carries urine down to the bladder. It does this 24 hours per day! e. bladder stores urine. f. urethra a tube carrying urine from the bladder when it is full. b. Respiratory System 7 Label the diagram below: 8. Use the words given below to fill in the blanks. diaphragm, cilia, epiglottis, lungs, trachea a. Trachea carries air to and from lungs. b. Cilia are hairs-like structures in trachea which removes dust particles (stops particles from entering the lungs). c. Epiglotis stops food from entering the lungs. d. The lungs are the essential organs of respiration. The main function of the lungs is to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen and vice versa. Each lung is enclosed separately within two membranes, like a balloon inside a bag inside a bag.

20 e. Diaphragm is a muscular structure acts as a floor to the chest cavity as well as a roof to the abdomen. It helps to expand and contract the lungs, forcing air into and out of them.

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