The Human Body 101. Anatomy. Musculoskeletal System. A short introduction to Anatomy, Physiology and the Pathology of Injury. bones fascial structures

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1 The Human Body 101 A short introduction to Anatomy, Physiology and the Pathology of Injury. Anatomy The body is separated into systems. Musculoskeletal Neurological Circulatory Lymphatic Visceral It s important to remember that these systems are a construct of anatomists in order to understand them better. In reality they all function in an interrelated way. Musculoskeletal System Composed of: skeletal muscle bones fascial structures 1

2 Musculoskeletal System Skeletal muscle attaches to bones and is under voluntary control of the somatic nervous system 2

3 Musculoskeletal System Bones of spine 7 cervical vertebrae C1-C7 12 thoracic vertebrae corresponding to the ribs T1-T12 5 lumbar vertebrae L1-L5 5 sacral vertebrae fused into the sacrum 4 coccygeal vertebrae fused into the coccyx Musculoskeletal System Fascia several types compartmentalises the body important in proprioception gets sticky causing restrictions 3

4 Neurological System Separated into: Central Nervous System (CNS) composed of brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Composed of nerves leaving the spinal cord and innervating the body. Also contains theautonomic Nervous System and the Somatic Nervous System. Central Nervous System Composed of brain and spinal cord. Integrates behaviour and functions in higher thought processes. 4

5 Neurological System Peripheral Nervous System: made up of autonomic and somatic nervous systems Autonomic Nervous System contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems responsible for fight or flight Somatic Nervous System responsible for motor and sensory control of the body Neurological System Somatic Nervous System contains afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves Nerve roots exit the vertebral foramina below their associated vertebra and are numbered with reference to that vertebra. They then coalesce to form nerves. Dermatomes and Myatomes are areas of the body innervated by a single spinal nerve root. 5

6 Circulatory System Consists of heart and blood vessels. Responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing metabolic waste products. Lymphatic System Runs parallel to the circulatory system. Contains lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels that carry lymph towards the heart. Responsible for returning excess interstitial fluid to the heart. Also plays major role in immune function Visceral System Includes all of the organs and their associated ligaments, fascial capsules and nerves Includes the digestive, reproductive, cardiovascular, excretory, immune and integumentary systems. Controlled by the visceral portion of the autonomic nervous system. Can have restrictions and dysfunctions that inhibit function. 6

7 Physiology All of these systems function together to maintain health. When you interupt their ability to work together you have dysfunction. For example muscle tone is maintained by a reflex arc in response to input via sensory receptors in the muscle, tendon and associated fascia. This can be interrupted by injury or an imbalance of forces. Pathology of a Traumatic Injury: Whiplash In an MVA the most common soft tissue injury is whiplash and whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Results from a sudden acceleration deceleration injury or a sudden hyperextension flexion injury. WAD QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 7

8 WAD Classifcations Grade Clinical Presentation No neck complaints. No physical signs. Neck complaints of pain, tenderness and stiffness only. No physical signs. Neck complaints and musculoskeletal signs of decreased ROM and point tenderness. WAD Classifcations continued 3 Neck complaints and neurological signs including decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, weakness and sensory deficits. 4 Neck complaint and fracture or dislocation. WAD Pathology Muscles in neck may be strained and ligaments in neck may be sprained. Causes splinting of surrounding muscles and reflex inhibition of joint. Also causes inflammatory response which leads to scarring. Spasm and scarring can cause hypoxia in the muscles, tendons and ligaments causing fibrosis. 8

9 WAD Treatment Grades 1 and 2 are the most common. Treatment time varies depending on severity of injury. If have arm pain treatment time increases because there is nerve root involvement. Also need to consider possibility of a concussion. Summary The systems of the body integrate and function together. Forces on the body need to be in balance or there is dysfunction such as muscle spasm and pain. Scarring is a good thing as it allows the body to heal but needs to be functional. WAD is complex and requires a multifaceted approach to resolve. 9

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