The Impact of Pollution from Power Plants, Cement Plants, Brick Kilns in the Greater Cairo and the Implementation of Control Strategies

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1 The Impact of Pollution from Power Plants, Cement Plants, Brick Kilns in the Greater Cairo and the Implementation of Control Strategies 1

2 Prepared by Dr. Mounir W. Labib Consultant Climate Change Central Department, EEAA Pyramid in Beni Suef south of the GC area

3 INTRODUCTION The Greater Cairo (GC) area suffers from extreme levels of pollution from a variety of sources. In order to determine the major contributing factors, the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) conducted a Source Attribution Study (SAS) in 1999 and Among the major source categories identified were emissions from electrical power stations, cement factories and brick kilns.

4 This presentation describes the pollutants predicted through the source attribution work along with the control measures undertaken by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the Egyptian Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs to reduce pollution in the Greater Cairo (GC) area.

5 The Pollution Problem Old Iron & Steel Factory South of the GC area

6 continue Huge Amount of Mazout Combustion Produces a lot amount of PM Emissions (Tebbin South of the GC area)

7 continue Open Burning Industrial Source Shobra

8 continue Vehicle Emissions Brick Factory Emissions

9 Black Cloud in the Fall Brick Factory Heavy Traffic

10 High Levels of PM 10 during Fall Estimated PM 10 Concentrations for 13 October 1998 (Color Scale Indicates PM 10 Concentration in mg/m 3 )

11 Brick Factories

12 Cement Industry

13 Egypt Map and GC Monitoring Sites Location GC AREA

14 INTRODUCTION Greater Cairo, Egypt suffers from high ambient concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, including Particulate Matter (PM), Lead (Pb), Carbon Monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). Natural sources

15 In order to develop and implement a pollution-control strategy and to reduce the health impact of air pollution in Cairo, the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) was established. As part of the CAIP, source attribution studies (SAS) were performed to assess the impact of various sources (e.g., lead smelters, motor vehicles, oil combustion, vegetative burning, geological material, etc.) to ambient pollutant levels.

16 In this work, we report the PM source attribution results of intensive ambient monitoring studies performed during winter and fall of Also, the results of a 2002 study measuring both PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

17 Ibn Hakam St. El Thawra St. Ambient SAS Monitoring Sites The Greater Cairo (GC) area represents about 15% of the population of Egypt. Its area is less than 1000 km 2 Lot of sources of pollution are located in the area long time ago. About 15,000 industries are located in the area. Wind direction is almost Northern most of the year. KEY Urban Area El Ahram St. ### Monitoring Site Industrial Area El-Maleik Faisal St. Commercial Area District Boundary Arterial Road Zamalek l Kaha l Kaha El Sudan St. 13 (29 km) El Nile St El Corniche St. 26 (15 km) Shubra St. Ramses St El Geish St El Nasr St. 29 To Upper Egypt Port Said St. 12 El Khaleifa El Ma'amoun St Salah Salem St. El Uruba St. El Nasr St. 15 (28 km) El Tairan St. Abu Bakr St. El Nasr St. Aziz El Masri St El-Quallaly l Sq.Qualaly Shoubra 7 21 Sq. Square Basateen 16 l Basatee n Autostrade Massara l EL- l 14 (39 km) Helwan 27 Tebbin l South l The yellow sites were added on 2002l

18 SAS RESULTS FOR POWER PLANTS, CEMENT AND BRICK FACTORIES

19 Results of SAS of PM 10 & PM 2.5 for Power Plants, Cement & Brick Factories SOURCE Ambient Sampling Site Name GASPP GASPP MAZOTPP MAZOTPP CEMENT CEMENT BRICK BRICK Gas power plant Gas power plant Oil power plant Oil power plant CEMENT CEMENT Particle Size, Aerodynamic Diameter µm PM 10 PM 2.5 PM 10 PM 2.5 PM 10 PM 2.5 PM 10 PM 2.5 Total Mass by Gravimetry /Concentration Brick plant Brick plant

20 DISCUSSIONS OF RESULTS The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 are elevated when using Mazout (heavy fuel oil) in power plants and low when using compressed natural gas (CNG). Average Concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 emitted from Power Plants according to the Type of Fuel used µgm/m PM10 (CNG) PM10 (Mazout) PM2.5 (CNG) PM2.5 (Mazout)

21 The emission from Mazout (heavy fuel oil) is approximately 100 times than using CNG for PM 10 and it is 160 times approximately for PM 2.5. Switching from Mazout to CNG will decrease the pollution in the GC area dramatically. This change has been implemented by the government of Egypt in All power plants are currently using CNG.

22 Concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 by comparing the using of Mazout in Cement Industry and Brick Factories Average Concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 emitted from Cement industry and Brick Factories (Mazout) µgm/m PM10 PM2.5 PM10 PM2.5 Cement Factory Brick Factory

23 The emissions from Brick factories are much less than what is emitted from Cement industry; although both are using Mazout. The emissions from Cement Plants are about 10 times the emissions from Brick factories in both fractions. Two factors may contribute to this difference: (1) the burning of fuel in Brick factories is much better than the burning of fuel in Cement Factories and (2) the magnitude of emissions from the Cement Plants is greater. It is also interesting to note that the concentration of sulfur (as an example) is much higher for Mazout compared with CNG in all industries.

24 Electrical Power Station Using CNG as a fuel

25

26 EEAA conducted a Source Attribution Study (SAS) with USAID support through Cairo Air Improvement Project, and evaluated the percentage of emitted particulates sources of (PM 10 ) in the air during the crisis. Percentages of PM 10 Emissions according to Source Categories Percentage of Inhalable PM 10 in Air in the GC area 23% 23% 12% 42% Burning of Agriculture Waste Burning of Municipal Waste Industrial Emissions Vehicles Exhaust

27 More than 50% of PM 10 emitted during the air pollution episodes in the GC area are from burning of agriculture wastes and municipal wastes. The other source categories are the vehicle emissions and the industrial emissions. The description of pollution sources in each governorate was presented which includes the sources of pollution as industries, agriculture land areas and the number of vehicles.

28

29 Planned Programs for Confronting Air Pollution episodes EEAA implemented eight different programs to evaluate and interact with the air pollution episodes, which are: Developing, compromising the status of SMSs. Environmental Monitoring & Early Warning Network. Abatement of Vehicles Exhaust. Abatement of open burning of solid waste.

30 Compromising the status of great factories. Recycling of Agricultural Waste (Rice Straw). Environmental Inspection. Communication & Environmental Awareness.

31 Main Control Measures Photos from Beni Suef

32 Main Control Measures are: Consulting with Owners of Establishments for Common Understanding. Developing an Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN). Computing the Historical Accumulations of Solid Waste.

33 Preparing Recycling Plan of Agricultural Waste (Rice Straw). Establishment of Crisis Management operations Center. Coordination Plan with Other Ministries and Governorates. Environment Awareness and Information Program

34

35 The source attribution results helped to determine the major sources of pollution in the GC area. In addition, the results indicated the concentrations of many species found in PM 10 and PM 2.5 are unique for the three industries under consideration. PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions are high when Mazout is used rather than CNG. The emission from Mazout is approximately 100 times than using CNG for PM 10 and it is 160 times approximately for PM 2.5.

36 Emission from Brick factories is much less than what is emitted from the Cement industry in spite that of the fact that both of them are using Mazout. The emissions from Cement are about 10 times the emissions from Brick factories in both fractions. To address this problem, seven areas were considered. These items included: 1- consulting with owner s establishment.

37 2- Development of Air Quality Monitoring Networks through two programs with USAID (CAIP) & DANIDA (EIMP). 3- Computing the historical accumulations of waste in the GC area along many past years. 4- Matrix recycling the agricultural wastes especially rice straw. 5- Establishment of crises management operations center operation with complete coordination with the Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA).

38 6- Preparation of coordination plan with other Ministries and Governorates. 7- Conducting a Communication and Environmental Awareness Program It is strongly recommended to repeat the SAS every five years so the decision makers can evaluate the percentages of emissions of each source categories in order to face the problem and implement the proper actions.

39

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