Parasite Organisms that live on or in another organism

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1 Parasitism and Plant Disease Important Dfiii Definitions: Pathogen a disease causing agent Pathogenicity Ability for an organism to interfere with one or more essential functions of another organism causing disease Virulence The degreeof pathogenicityof of a pathogen Parasite Organisms that live on or in another organism and obtains its food from thelater Plant Parasite Organism that becomes intimately associated with the a plant andmultiplies/grows at the expense of the plant Saprophyte Organisms that live on dead matter and p p y g secrete enzymes to break down material for energy

2 Parasitism and Plant Disease Pathogen Spectrum Non Obligate Parasites Facultative Saprophytes Facultative Parasites Obligate Parasites (Biotrophs) Obligate Saprophytes (Necrotrophs)

3 Parasitism and Plant Disease Parasites Tend to have narrow host range except viruses Does not need to kill plant cells to complete lifecycle Intimate relationship with plant continuous absorption of nutrients Grows inter and intra cellulary l Infected plants tend to be stunted, poor vigor Vampires Saprophytes Tend to have broad host range Kills plant tissues to acquire nutrients for growth and complete lifecycle Secrete enzymes and toxins Grows inter cellularly Werewolves

4 Parasitism and Plant Disease Disease Triangle Disease occurrence is an interactive event! All sides must favor disease for the disease process to take place! Amount of Disease Total of conditions favoring susceptibility Total of conditions favoring susceptibility Host

5 Parasitism and Plant Disease Factors affecting the Pathogen: 1. Virulence 2. Population present 3. Life stage of propagule 4. Vectors present Disease Triangle

6 Parasitism and Plant Disease Factors affecting the Host: 1. Level of resistance 2. Growth stage of plant 3. Genetic uniformity of neighboring plants 4. Plant Vigor 5. Plant Density 6. Structure of Plant Disease Triangle

7 Parasitism and Plant Disease Factors affecting the Environment: 1. Conditions that favor disease Disease Triangle 2. Conditions that promote plant growth 3. Conditions that affect dispersal Includes levels of humidity, temperature, wind speed, and periods of rain

8 Parasitism and Plant Disease Disease Triangle Interpretation of the triangle: Length of each side is proportional to the sum total of the characteristics ti of each component that favors disease Amount Amount of of Disease Disease If one side is zero, no disease If one side is very large, disease potential ti lis large Quantification of the triangle s area would represent the amount of disease Amount of Disease Total of conditions favoring susceptibility Host

9 Diseases are a series of distinct events that occur in succession leading to the perpetuation of the disease and pathogen This chain of events is called the disease cycle! Closely related to the lifecycle of the pathogen

10 Host Recognition Infection Invasion Colonization Penetration The Disease Cycle Pathogen Growth and/or Reproduction Attachment Dissemination of 2 2 Incubation Inoculum Dissemination 1 Inoculum Dormant Period Symptom Development Production of Dormant Stage

11 Pi Primary Events: 1. Inoculation 2. Penetration 3. Establishment of Infection 4. Invasion 5. Growth and reproduction of the pathogen (Colonization) 6. Dissemination of the pathogen 7. Survival in the absence of the host The Disease Cycle

12 1. Inoculation Initial contact of pathogen with a susceptible plant site Innoculum: pathogen brought into infection court May be spores, sclerotia, mycelial fragments, bacteria, or viruses Primary inoculum primary infection Secondary inoculum secondary infection Inoculum Sources Survival in perennial plants, weeds, contaminated soil, soil debris, seeds, transplants, and vectors Arrival of inoculum 1. Passively (i.e. wind) 2. Chemotaxis organisms within the soil are attracted to plant roots 3. Vector transmitted (i.e. insects)

13 2. Penetration 2.4 Recognition between host and 2.1 Attachment to host Fungi and bacteria produce gelatinous substances to help them stick to leaf surface 22Spore 2.2 germination Mainly Fungi spore germinates forming germ tube and moves along host to find opening/weak point 23Appressorium 2.3 Formation Fungi only Formation of appressorium and softening enzymes and prepares p for penetration into plant pathogen Triggers plant resistance genes if present promotes /prevents infection 2.5 Penetration Direct Formation of appressorium, and penetration peg Indirect wounds wind/growth cracks, wind blown sand, lesions caused by other pathogens, vectors natural openings Stomata, hydrathodes, lenticels

14 2. Penetration (cont.) Agrios, 1997

15 2. Penetration (cont.) Photos from: Read, N.D., Kellock, L.J., Knight, H., Trewavas, A.J. (1992b). Contact sensing during infection by fungal pathogens.

16 3. Establishment of Infection Infection: Process by which pathogens establish contact with susceptible cells and procure nutrients ti t Successful infections result in symptoms visibly iibl detectable dt tbl changes in the plant Obligate fungal parasites form haustoria intracellular vampires Pth Pathogen releases enzymes, toxins, and growth regulators Plant reacts with defense df mechanisms Photos from: Read, N.D., Kellock, L.J., Knight, H., Trewavas, A.J. (1992b). Contact sensing during infection by fungal pathogens.

17 4. Invasion Pathogens spread through plant Fungi and bacteria: Spread by intracellular and intercellular growth by using enzymes and hormones, localized li Nematodes: Move intercellularly, localized Viruses, Viroids, and xylem/phloemlimited limited bacteria: Move cell to cell intracellularly, systemic

18 5. Growth and reproduction of the pathogen (Colonization) Pathogens continue to spread until the infection is stopped or the plant is dead Only fungi and nematodes can actively move All other pathogens rely rapid reproduction and being passively moved

19 5. Growth and reproduction of the pathogen (Colonization) Reproduction: Fungi spores, inter and intra, surface and interior Bacteria cell division, interand intra, surface and interior Viruses intra, inside cells only Nematodes inter and intra, surface and interior Parasitic Plants seeds, exterior of plant only Rate varies on pathogen present, environment, and host

20 6. Dissemination of pathogen Agrios, 1997

21 7. Survival of pathogen without a host (Overwintering stage) Fungi: mycelium in cankers, bud scales, seeds, tubers, and plant debris; spores; and sclerotia Soil inhabitants survive in soil indefinitely (saprophytes) p Soil transients survive in soil for short period of time (parasites) Parasitic Plants: Seeds and vegetative from on host Bacteria: same way as fungi; infected plants, seeds, tubers, and plant debris; in the bodies of insect vectors. Survive better in large slimy colonies than as small groups. Viruses: survive only in living plant tissues; roots of perennial plants, seeds of some hosts, and insect vectors. Nematodes: Survive as eggs in the soil; or lifestages that are dormant in seeds and bulbs

22 7. Survival of pathogen without a host Agrios, 1997

23 Disease Epidemics: Monocyclic: completes 1 disease cycle in a year 1 inoculum is only inoculum for entire year Disease increases year to year as inoculum builds 1 inoculum 1 infection Over seasoning Stage Polycyclic: 2or more disease cycles in a year most pathogens disseminated by air, and airborne vectors create explosive epidemics Late Blight, Powdery Mildew, and Rusts 1 inoculum 2 infection 1 infection 2 inoculum Polyetic requiring two or more years to complete lifecycle (considered monocyclic) typical of many vascular wilt pathogens Dutch Elm Disease Over seasoning Stage

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