CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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1 MODULE 4 CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY NOTES

2 I have designed and compiled these beautiful notes to provide a detailed but concise summary of this module. I have spent a lot of time perfecting the content as well as the presentation to make your learning as easy as possible and less daunting. A-LEVEL REVISION & EXAM PREP IN A SNAP Concise & exam board specific videos High quality notes and summaries Created by A* students Visit to find out more DISCLAIMER The information presented is no way produced or endorsed by any exam board.

3 INDEX TOPIC 1: BASIC CONCEPTS AND HYDROCARBONS Section 1: Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry. 5 Section 2: Alkanes. 11 Section 3: Alkenes. 14 TOPIC 2: ALCOHOLS, HALOALKANES AND ANALYSIS Section 1: Alcohols. 22 Section 2: Haloalkanes. 25 Section 3: Organic Synthesis. 27 Section 4: Analytical techniques. 31 3

4 TOPIC 1 Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons

5 SECTION 1: Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry 1 IUPAC nomenclature for systematic naming of compounds Specific naming system used to give unambiguous names to compounds Three parts to a name: stem, suffix and prefix Stem: main part, depends on the longest carbon chain in a molecule Based on name of the alkane that corresponds to the longest carbon chain Alkane Number of C atoms in the main carbon chain Methane 1 Ethane 2 Propane 3 Butane 4 Pentane 5 Hexane 6 Heptane 7 Octane 8 Nonane 9 Decane 10 Suffix: end of the name, identifies the most important functional group If a suffix starts with a vowel the -e at the end of the alkane stem is dropped Prefix: start of the name, identifies any other functional groups and the carbons they re attached to Functional group Formula Prefix Suffix Alkanes C-C -ane Alkenes C=C -ene Haloalkanes -F -Cl -Br -I fluorochlorobromoiodo- 5

6 Functional group Formula Prefix Suffix Alcohols -OH hydroxy- -ol Carboxylic Acid -COOH -oic acid Aldehydes -CHO -al Ketones C-CO-C -one Numbers are used to indicate the location of a carbon side chain or functional group on the main chain Dashes separate numbers from words Commas separate numbers To name a compound Identify the longest carbon chain and the right alkane stem Identify the most important functional group and which carbon on the carbon chain it is attached to Attach the suffix to the stem with number of the carbon it s on before it, removing the -e from the stem if needed Identify any other functional groups and add them as prefixes Prefixes are written in alphabetical order, numbering the carbons so that the smallest numbers possible are used di- indicates two identical functional groups, tri- three and tetra- four Aldehydes and carboxylic acids don t need numbers because they re always at the end of a chain Alkanes with a hydrogen removed are called alkyl groups They re added as prefixes when attached to the main carbon chain Alkyl group Number of C atoms in the side carbon chain Methyl 1 Ethyl 2 Propyl 3 Butyl 4 Pentyl 5 Hexyl 6 Heptyl 7 Octyl 8 Nonyl 9 Decyl 10 6

7 2 Interpreting structures General formula: the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series, represents the actual number of atoms in each molecule e.g. C 4 H 10 Structural formula: shows number of atoms present and way in which they are arranged relative to each other Displayed formula: shows actual places of the atoms and nature of the bonds between them Skeletal formula: carbon and hydrogen atoms omitted with carbon atoms represented by junctions between bonds 3 Functional groups and homologous series Functional group: a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound Homologous series: a series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH 2 Homologous series generally have similar chemical properties Their physical properties change as each unit of CH 2 is added Their molecular formula can be worked out from a basic formula for the series Alkyl group: an alkane missing a single hydrogen, can be a side chain on other carbon chains Formula C n H 2n+1 e.g. propyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 (C 3 H 7 ) Aliphatic: a compound containing carbon and hydrogen joined together in straight chains, branched chains or non-aromatic rings e.g. 2,3-dimethylpentane Alicyclic: an aliphatic compound arranged in non-aromatic rings with or without side chains e.g. cyclohexane Aromatic: a compound containing a benzene ring Saturated: a compound with single carbon carbon bonds only Unsaturated: the presence of multiple carbon carbon bonds, including C = C, triple bonds and aromatic rings 7

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