# Lesson Overview Students will analyze the relationship between four different soil coverings and its effect on soil temperature. Grouping Groups of 4

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1 Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Rays Effects Soil Temperature Adapted from: Discovering Albedo found at: Focus on Inquiry The student will focus on inquiry by determining independent and dependent variables and developing a hypothesis. During the experiment, students collect and record soil temperature data. Then they will create a line graph and analyze the data. Lesson Overview Students will analyze the relationship between four different soil coverings and its effect on soil temperature. Duration 1-2 class periods Setting Computer Lab/Classroom Grouping Groups of 4 PTI Inquiry Subskills 1., 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.6,.1,.2,.5,.7,.8, 4.2, 4., 5.2, 5., 5.8, 7.2, 7. Lesson Components Estimated Time Inquiry Subskills Used Technology Used Level of Student Engagement Brief Description Engage Overhead projector 1 Students interact in a class discussion about the reflection of sunlight. Explore Explain Expand days 1., 2.1, 2.5, 2.6,.1,.2,.5,.7,.8 2.2,.8, 4.2, 4., 5.2, 5., 7.2, , 2.6,.1,.2,.5,.7, 4., 5.2, 5., 5.8, 7.2 Microsoft Excel Microsoft Excel Computer/ Internet Students formulate a hypothesis and then conduct an experiment by collecting soil temperature data with various types of soil covering. Students identify variables in the experiment, create a line graph to better analyze the data, and use the data collected to determine the relationship between soil covering and temperature. Students research types of heat energy transfer and connect how ground cover affects energy transfer. Students conduct the experiment again using recommended and different soil coverings such as ground cover. Answers to student lab reports and Evaluate teacher generated rubric or checklist for graph requirements. Level of Student Engagement 1 Low Listen to lecture, observe the teacher, individual reading, teacher demonstration, teacher-centered instruction 2 Moderate Raise questions, lecture with discussion, record data, make predictions, technology interaction with assistance High Hands-on activity or inquiry; critique others, draw conclusions, make connections, problem-solve, student-centered National Science Education Standards Inquiry Design and conduct a scientific investigation Use appropriate tools ant techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. National Science Education Standards Earth Science Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds large amounts of heat. Louisiana Grade Level Expectations Inquiry Gr. 8, Inquiry GLE#4-Design, predict outcomes, and conduct experiments to answer guiding questions (SI-M-A2) Gr. 8, Inquiry GLE#5-Identify independent variables, dependent variables, and variables that should be controlled in designing an experiment (SI-M-A2) Gr. 8, Inquiry GLE#6-Select and use appropriate equipment, technology, tools, and metric system units of measurement to make observations (SI-M-A) Gr. 8, Inquiry GLE#7-Record observations using methods that complement investigations ( journals, tables, charts) (SI-M-A) Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Ray Effects Soil Temperature page 1

3 1. Students answer questions on the Blackline Master 1 during the activity. They may need assistance on the creating the line graph in Excel. Here is a screenshot of a possible result: Expand 1. Have the students research the types of energy transfer (radiation, conduction, and convection) on the Internet and document data on each type. (Note: Different groups could research a different type.) Then have students write a paragraph to connect the type of energy transfer to the experiment on how ground cover affects energy transfer. 2. Have students contact greenhouses in the area for recommendations on soil cover. Have students test recommended material by conducting the experiment again and see if any of their material worked better and provide reasons why or why not.. Have the students predict what effect different types of ground cover (shrubs, grass, trees, etc.) have on soil temperature. Have them test their predictions by conducting this experiment with those coverings. Evaluate 1. Students can be assessed on the answers on the Blackline Master 1 as well as the line graph drawn. Blackline Master 1. Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Rays Effects Soil Temperature Supplementary Resources See website for additional information. Credits: Contributing Teacher: Don Samuelson NTEN Course: N/A Instructor: N/ADeveloping Team: T.L. Buck Buchanan, Patti Harrison, Don Samuelson, John Usher, Don Wilson HTML Programmers: Tyson N. Trebesch, Ryan Huddleston, Andy Tomascak, Ching-Kwong Chia Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Ray Effects Soil Temperature page

5 Blackline Master #1, pg. 2 Temperature). You can change the range of the temperature by highlighting the vertical axis, right-clicking, and choosing Format Axis. Then change the Axis Options to Fixed with a Min value of 50, a Max value of 100, Major unit of 5, and Minor unit of 2. You can also change the values of the time on the horizontal axis by highlighting the values, then go to the Design Tab and click on Select Data. Under the Horizontal Axis select Edit and select your range to be the values in Column A. Click OK and you should see the correct values here now. This line graph shows the relationship between covering type and temperature. Save or print this file. 1. List the variables in this experiment: Independent: Dependent: 2. Which covering caused the greatest temperature change over time?. Which covering caused the smallest temperature change over time? 4. List the coverings in order, from the one that produced the smallest change to the greatest change. a. b. c. d. 5. What is the relationship between type of covering and temperature change? 6. Why is time the independent variable? Conclusion: 1. Was your hypothesis supported or not? 2. Why?. What did you learn by doing this experiment? Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Ray Effects Soil Temperature page 5

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