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1 "Explaining the Illusion of the Constant Veloity of Light." Paul Marmet 401 Ogilvie Road, Glouester, Ontario, Canada K1J 7N4 ABSTRACT. Considering that photons travel at the veloity of light in the fundamental frame, we expet logially that these photons travel at veloity -v (or +v) with respet to a frame moving at veloity v. We know that the observed veloity is measured as. However, that logial onsequene has never been explained. Using Newton's physis and onventional logi, we explain how the veloity of light APPEARS onstant in the two way measurement of the veloity of light, while it is -v (and +v) in the Sagna effet. We answer the question: "With respet to what does light move?" This paper gives a physial explanation how the veloity of light is really (-v) with respet to the observer, even if the observer's tools always measure a veloity represented by the number. We explain how this problem is ruial in the Global Positioning System (GPS) and in loks synhronization. The Lorentz' transformations beome quite useless. This apparent onstant veloity of light is the most fasinating illusion in siene. 1 - INTRODUCTION. Many experiments, like the Mihelson-Morley and Sagna experiments and others, are testing the fundamental nature of light. It is onfliting to observe that the veloity of photons is measured as a onstant, when the observer moves away from that light soure. Photons, just as any other partile, possess an independent existene and are not reated by a physiist's thought, as laimed in quantum mehanis. Sine all other partiles are measured with veloities (-v) or (+v) with respet to a moving frame, why an photons not obey that same rule? Sine Newton's mehanis has shown that all relative veloities produe a Doppler frequeny shift, we must expet logially that some speial phenomena prevent us from deteting the real hange of relative veloity. It is quite inorret to believe that this phenomenon annot be explained using physial reality and Newton physis. As required by the priniple of mass-energy onservation [1], the atoms (nuleus and eletrons) forming a loal standard referene meter and a moving lok aquire some extra mass due to the materialization of kineti energy. Quantum mehanis shows [1] that this inrease of energy hanges the de Broglie eletron wavelength and onsequently, the Bohr radius and the lok rate. It is surprising to find new hypotheses like spae-time distortion, and even more, the suggestion of "new logi" to explain these observations, while it is not taken into aount that the rate of the moving lok is naturally modified due to the inrease of mass (following the absorption of kineti energy). We show here that the simple appliation of the priniple of mass-energy onservation explains naturally all these experiments. We must add that there is only one Real Logi. An assumed Superior Logi, appliable to modern physis is not ompatible with Real Logi. That assumed Superior Logi, inaessible to human mind, is a ommon error of the 0 th entury as in the previous ones. Finally, we must reall that an empirial equation used to predit the outome of a physial system is not an explanation. When there is no physis underneath these mathematial equations, they give empirial preditions of what will happen to the system, what happened in the past or it is a simple mathematial relationship. Mathematial equations generally deal with time symbols, but they never explain "why". A real explanation must answer the question of ausality, whih is asked by why? An equation is never the "ause" of a phenomenon. - SWITCHING BETWEEN FRAMES. Let us onsider the frame of referene of a small star luster, with stars having all the same veloity, as illustrated on figure 1. One of those stars is our Sun, whih is surrounded by the Earth rotating around it. In this star frame, an observer measures that the photons are emitted at veloity with respet to the star system. That light (h, on figure 1) travels toward the Earth, but the Earth moves away at veloity v E with respet to the star system as illustrated on figure 1. Figure 1 We assume that photons are some sort of eletromagneti wave pakets, whih travel at veloity with respet to the star luster. Consequently, those photons must logially travel at a veloity (-v) with respet to the 1

2 Earth that moves at veloity v (see figure 1). As demonstrated previously [1], the strit appliation of the priniple of mass-energy onservation leads to the slowing down of loks and the inrease of the Bohr radius, whih produes an inrease of the physial length of matter. More far-reahing appliations have been presented previously [1], but in the present paper, we need to use solely, the inrease of length of matter and the slowing down of loks. Using lassial physis with these two natural onsequenes of mass-energy onservation, this is totally suffiient to explain all the problems related to speial relativity. The Lorentz equations beome useless. A previous reading of that book (1) would be extremely helpful, even if the main explanations and relationships are briefly realled here. Let us now simplify figure 1. On the right hand side of figure, the Earth moving at veloity [v], is now substituted by a train, moving at veloity v with respet to the station frame [s]. An image of the moving train appears on the upper left of figure, at a previous time. The physial length of the moving train is established here as L v, whih is the distane between loks and. Below, we see the train at rest at the station [s] before it started to move. Light emitted from the star system, is now represented by the light emitted at loation A on the station frame [s]. On figure, the length of the station is the distane L v between loks A and B. That same distane is equal to the length of the train "in motion". Of ourse, the length of the train L s at rest is shorter before it started to move. Figure As explained previously [1] the relative length L v of the train in motion with respet to the train at rest L s, is: Lv Length inmotion 1 Ls Length at rest As defined previously [1], the parameter is equal to 1/(1-(v / )) (1/). Capital letters are used to desribe physial lengths. The sub index gives the loation of the physial body. To be oherent, the physial length L s and L v must be ompared with the same standard unit of length in the same frame. We have seen [1] that when we arry a standard unit of length from a rest frame to a moving frame, that standard length of referene also beomes times longer. For example, the relationships between the lengths L v and L s in equation 1 an be verified experimentally if, at one instant, loks and on the moving train leaves some marks on the station frame that an be measured with the station meter. However, sine we deal with observers measuring lengths and reording lok displays using their proper units, we need to determine the number of loal units in other frames. Of ourse, when the standard meter used to make measurements is moved to another frame, its physial length is also hanged. Therefore when the moving observer determines the length of a moving body, he is now doing it with respet to the loal standard meter (whih is different). The number "" represents the number of times the designated standard units of length have been ounted when measuring L. The number of times a (moving) partiular length is longer than the standard length loated on the station [s], is represented by v [s]. The quantity inside the square parenthesis [s] or [v], indiates the information about whih the standard unit is used (either at rest or moving). The sub indexes "s" or "v" (in s, v ) gives the loation (or sometimes the frame) of the measured body. We see that the same rod, at different loations, an be designated by four numbers s [s], s [v], v [s] or v [v]. Let us take the example when the observer on the train uses his loal meter to measure the length of the moving train. He finds that this number v [v] is idential to the number of units on the station s [s] before the train started to move, even if it is not the same physial length (L v >L s ). However, when the same physial rod, in the same frame (onstant L v ) is measured using different standard units [v] or [s], the number measured with respet to eah standard lengths units [v] or [s] follows [1] the relationship: v[s] v[v] Sine the moving observer uses his loal moving standard units, he might believe that the length does not inrease when his own veloity inreases. He does not realize that his train is physially longer, but this is not measurable beause his loal standard meter has inreased in the same proportion. In doing loal mathematial alulations, he will normally use the number v [v] to alulate the length, whih is idential to the number s [s]. In fat equation also implies that the real physial length L v is equal to times L s. In order to apply physis

3 orretly, the moving observer must ompensate for the fat that he does not possess the same standard unit of length as when he is loated on the station frame. Therefore he must apply a orretion due to the hange of length of his measuring loal standard meter as given in equation. We have seen that, due to mass-energy onservation, it is impossible to swith matter between frames without hanging the physial length of the standard measuring meter. For the same reason, it is impossible to swith a standard lok to a new frame without altering its lok rate. At the same time matter passes from a station frame to a moving frame, we have seen [1] that atomi loks hange their rate, beause the fundamental partiles (eletrons, et.) of the atoms have aquired energy-equivalent mass. We have seen [1] that the rate of the moving loks and (on a moving frame) is times slower than the rate of loks A or B loated on the rest frame. Consequently, when one loal seond [v] is measured on the moving train, the moving observer must realize that in fat, a longer time interval has elapsed, beause that loal moving lok is slow. During exatly the same time interval, the slower lok rate of the moving lok produes a smaller differene of lok display CD v than the display observed on the rest lok CD s. It has been demonstrated [1] that the relative Differene of Clok Displays between these frames is given by the relationship: CDv CD Train 1 3 CDs CD Station If the train observer is a good sientist, he will take into aount in his alulation that his moving lok is slow. Just as when he was measuring lengths, he knows that the two loks A and loated on different frames will show a different differene of display (apparent time) during the same real time interval. Using a similar method as for the ase of length (equation ), during the same time interval, the moving observer must use equation (3) to ompensate for his slow loal lok aording to the relationship: CD[v] 1 4 CD[s] In this paper, we do not need to onsider diretly the internal hange of mass of eletrons and nulei. This has been onsidered previously [1,]. Here, there is no hange of gravitational potential. Suh a hange of gravitational potential has been alulated for the advane of the perihelion of Merury []. Here we deal only with lok rates and physial lengths, whih orresponds to speial relativity. Consequently, the problem is muh simpler. This model is always ompatible with a physial reality, whih is independent of the observer, ontrary to the non-physial Lorentz transformations. There exists neither spae ontration nor time dilation, just a hange of length of physial bodies and a hange of lok rate. However, sine we deal with veloities, we have seen [1] previously, that all veloities are represented by idential units (V[s] = V[v]), whether we use the star units or the Earth units, beause loal lengths and loal lok rates vary in the same proportion when swithing between frames. Our aim is now to alulate the veloity of light emitted from soure A, when measured inside the moving train observer, using the loal train loks and the loal moving standard meter. These alulations imply quantities having a very large variation in size. In order to avoid lengthy alulations involving different physial phenomena, we will sometimes limit the alulation to the first order (power) of v/. Sine these alulations are verified by the GPS and the Sagna effet, we will neglet all higher power of v/, beause they modify the result by a quantity as small as of the relevant alulated Sagna effet. Further investigation involving a higher power of v/ will be onsider later. 3 - EINSTEIN'S CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TECHNIQUE. On the station frame, an observer alulates the veloity of light, using his proper units [s] and the standard method used by Einstein. A pulse of light is emitted from loation A toward B (see figure ). The station observer measures the veloity of light, alulating the quotient of the length L V, divided by the differene of loal time between light emitted from A and reeived at B (see figure ). Sine the train is in motion, for the station observer, the distane L v between A and B is represented by V [s] and not S [s], beause the train is really longer when in motion. Measuring the "time interval" means only, that the station observer reords and alulates the displays shown respetively on both loks, at the instant light is at loation A (CD A ) and later B (CD B ). This experiment gives. v[s] 5 CDB[s] CDA[s] We notie that loks A, B, and have not been synhronized yet. Let us apply the Einstein's synhronization method to the moving frame. A pulse of light is emitted from loation A on the station (see figure ). Later, at the moment some photons pass through loation, the Clok Display (CD [v]) on lok is reorded. Also, when light reahes loation, the Clok Display on (CD [v]) is reorded. As seen by the train observer, the veloity of light on the moving train is given by the following quotient. --- The distane v [v] (between and ) divided by: " the Differene of Clok Display between lok, (when light arrives)" minus "the display on lok (when light passed in )". Before alulating orretly the veloity of light on the train, we must synhronize loks and on the moving frame. As suggested by Einstein, we synhronize lok with lok (inside the moving frame) in the 3

4 usual way. It is a two-way veloity lok synhronization. The Einstein's synhronization tehnique used by the moving observer is the following: A pulse of light is sent between the two loks and. The differene of Clok Displays (CD -- [v]) on loks (or ) is reorded during a return trip of light between and. In a seond part of the experiment, at the moment light from is reeived at lok, the Clok Display on lok is set to the same value as the initial Clok Display on lok (when light was emitted), plus one half the differene of Clok Display {(1/)(CD -- [v]} measured previously (light making a two-way trip between to ). The loal "apparent time" means, what is displayed on the moving lok. One must reall that this measurement must be done using all loal moving frame units [v] as displayed diretly on and. This is utterly important as explained in detail in the book (1). In the ase of loks A and B on the station, this synhronization method is idential as above, using loks A and B and the station length V [s]. Finally, the synhronization must be done between loks A and. The most reliable way is to synhronize them at the same value (same display), when lok passes just besides lok A (see left hand side of figure ). It is important to add here that it is also demonstrated [1] that another well-known proedure, leads to a perfetly idential synhronization between two loks. This is used by several authors. We refer [1] to it as method #. It onsists in arrying a third lok, at an infinitely slow veloity on the moving frame between and. This leads to a synhronization of with respet to whih is idential to the Einstein's synhronization method explained above. Of ourse, this method is also applied suessfully between A and B. The reader must refer to hapter 9 of the book [1] to see that the two methods lead to an idential synhronization of loks, when used either on the rest or on the moving frame. 4 - SYNCHRONIZATION OF MOVING CLOCKS AND, WITH A THIRD CLOCK. We have seen above, that there are two perfetly equivalent methods to synhronize loks. Method #1 uses a two-way refleted beam of light on a mirror, while method # is arrying a third lok on the moving frame between and. Of ourse, due to their kineti energies, both loks and on the train, run at a slower rate. As a onsequene of that slower lok rate, we show that when all three loks A and B and are all synhronized at zero, at the same instant, the fourth lok annot show a Clok Display equal to zero, due to the Einstein's synhronization tehnique desribed above. This phenomenon does not seem to have been notied diretly previously. However, we will see that it is the "ause" of the Sagna effet. This defiient synhronization of lok with respet to the others has been demonstrated in a previous paper [1]. We use here method #, whih is mathematially equivalent. The result is the same. We onsider that lok starts moving from lok to lok, at the moment lok passes besides lok A (see left hand side of figure ). Sine lok moves at the additional veloity [s] (with respet to v[s]), the Differene of Clok Displays (CD[s]) is reorded on lok A, while lok travels aross the distane v with respet to the moving frame. This orresponds to L on the rest frame. This gives: [ s] CD [s]{l } v A 6 [s] The differene of Clok Display (in units [s]) orresponds to an apparent time interval alled [s]. In equation 6 CD[s] is the apparent time interval during whih lok moves aross the moving distane v. Of ourse, we have already seen [1] that when we alulate veloities, the number (of units of veloity) representing a veloity is the same, in both frames ([s]=[v]). In equation 6, the symbol in { } adds some information about the distane traveled in the stationary frame. However, the moving train observer uses his own standard units to find the orresponding number of loal units in his frame. Sine the moving lok runs at a slower rate, during the same "time interval" the moving lok CD [v] will show a smaller CD, as given in equation (4). Equation 4 in 6 gives: CD[v]{L v } 7 where CD [v] is the differene of Clok Displays (apparent time) on lok on the moving train during the period when is traveling aross the distane L. Let us onsider lok Similarly to lok lok travels during the same time interval, but at veloity (v+. Therefore the CD [v] observed on lok during the same time interval, will differ only beause of the differene of veloity between v and (v+. Sine is veloity dependent, we just have to swith the veloity from to. The parameter, is the value of orresponding to the veloity (v+ of lok. Similarly to equation 7, the Differene of Clok Display on lok while lok travels distane L is: CD[v] v 8 4

5 We have seen that lok is synhronized with the slow moving lok when reahes. After the synhronization of lok with the arriving lok, the differene of lok displays between lok and (given by lok ), as given by equations 7 and 8 is: 1 1 CD [v] CD[v] v 9 By definition, we have 1 v 1 10 Sine v is very muh smaller than, we an use the series expansion of equation 10. We get: 4 1 v 3v Sine v = v +, we also have: 1 (v ) Equations 11 and 1 in 9 give: v ( CD CD ){L} v 13 Using Einstein's synhronization method, equation 13 is the Differene of Displays, at the same instant, between loks and. This differene is onstant in time. The original Einstein's lok synhronization method was pereived as an attempt to set up an idential display on two remote loks ( and ) on the same frame at the same time. However unexpetedly, in a moving frame this synhronization method does not give that expeted result (as obtained on the station frame). Equation 13 shows that the Display on lok gives an "apparent time" whih is earlier than the Display on lok. This is a fat oming out inevitably from the priniple of mass-energy onservation and Einstein's synhronization method. This defiient synhronization of lok is responsible for the Sagna effet that will be explained below. However, it has been shown [1] (hapter 9) that this differene in lok synhronization is normally undetetable and even appears quite natural for an observer traveling inside the moving train. From the above alulation, we see also that when lok returns in the opposite diretion (from to ), at its arrival, the Clok Display on is then again exatly the same as the Clok Display arried by the returning lok. The phenomenon is reversible. We note that equation 13 is idential to equation 9.37 in the book [1]. 5 - TABLE OF CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION. We have shown above that the synhronization of loks on a moving frame is suh that loks and must neessarily be synhronized with a different display "at the same instant". This is required even if both loks and are loated on the same frame. However, both loks (A and B) at eah extremity of the station frame show the same display at the same time. An observer on the station frame ould observe that loks and are not synhronized with an idential display at the same instant. However, the observer on the train ould not detet any differene when synhronizing his loal loks, beause both methods of synhronization using light, or arrying lok, agree with the above Einstein's disordant synhronization, between and. Sine this phenomenon has not been disussed previously (exept in [1]), and in order to give a non-ambiguous desription, we present a table of Clok Displays appearing simultaneously on the four loks A, B, and as a funtion of the apparent time on lok A, for eah suessive seond [s] as given in equation 13. Clok A Seond [s] Clok B Seond [s] Clok Seond [v] Clok Seond [v] v/ 1 1 1/ (1/)-(v/ ) / (/)-(v/ ) 3 3 3/ (3/)-(v/ ) Respetive Clok Displays on eah Clok at the Same Instant. Table CALCULATING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN A MOVING FRAME. 5

6 Let us alulate the distane "L " (see figure ) traveled by the beam of light emitted at veloity, from loation A, at rest on the station, during the time light passes from to loated in the moving frame. Using Galilean oordinates we alulate the veloity of the photons moving at veloity (-v) with respet to the moving train. The photons must travel aross the moving distane L v [s] when we onsider the relative veloity (-v) before passing from to. Consequently, the time T L [s] (or CD v [s] taken to pass from to, at the relative veloity -v, is equal to: TL [s] ( v) Lv[s] 14 We have l v [s] is the number of rest meters in length L v [s]. From equation 14 the time for light to travel aross L, an be written: CD [s] ( to ) v v 15 v Multiplying both numerator and denominator on the right hand side of equation 15 by (+v) and using the definition of, equation 15 beomes: v v CDv[s] ( to ) v 16 Using equation 4 in 16 we get: v v CDv[v] ( to ) v 17 We have seen above that in equation 17 the length v is given using the rest frame units. However, the moving observer uses the moving units whih is a number times smaller beause the moving standard meter is longer. Substituting equation in 17, we get: v v CDv[v] ( to ) v 18 If we repeat a alulation similar to the equations above, when light is emitted from a soure at rest but moving in the opposite diretion, Equations 18 beomes: v v CDv[v] ( to ) v 19 Equations 18 and 19 show that the time interval for light to travel from to is the sum of two quantities. The first term ( V /) orresponds to a time interval expeted assuming the veloity of light. The seond term must be explained by another phenomenon. 7 - MEASURING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN A MOVING FRAME. In order to measure the veloity of light in the moving frame, the observer takes the display on lok when light passes in. Later when light reahes loation, he reords the display on lok. We have seen in equation 13 that lok is late with respet to. Consequently the differene of display between lok and after the travel time between the two loks is given by equation 18 minus equation 13. This gives: ( CD CD ) ( to ) v 0 When light moves in the opposite diretion from to, sine lok is late with respet to, we see that equation 13 must be added to equation 19 in order to get the differene of lok display between lok and lok after light traveled between the two loations. Therefore the differene of lok display between and given by equation 13 plus equation 19 gives: ( CD CD ) ( to ) v 1 Equations 0 and 1 explains why the veloity of light appears to be. However, it is an illusion that has been measured by the observer beause the real veloity is v. The erroneous Einstein's lok synhronization method is the ause of the error of the observer. It is very important to notie that this error in lok synhronization is enormously more important than the usual relativisti orretion. For example, in a frame moving at the veloity of rotation of the Earth, (whih is about ), this orreting term ( V v/ ) is one million times larger than the usual orretion for the hange of lok rate (and length) used in relativity. It is surprising that this term has not been explained previously, while the relativisti term whih is about only one part in 10 1 here onsidered. This paper deals with this relatively large term (10-6 ). A detailed study of the other muh smaller (10-1 ) term will be fully explained later in a future paper. 8 - EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION OF THE DISCORDANT EINSTEIN'S SYNCHRONIZATION METHOD WITH THE GPS. 6

7 There are more diret measurements proving that the veloity of light in one diretion is v with respet to the moving observer. This disordant synhronization given in equation 13 has been measured in the world system of lok synhronization with the Global Positioning System. It is then observed experimentally that the Einstein's method of synhronization using the "half time interval" taken by a refleted beam of light is inadequate to determine the orret time. A orretion (whih is the Sagna effet) has to be added. As an example, let us assume that lok (from figure ) is in New York (N.Y.), and lok is in San Franiso (S.F.) as illustrated on figure 3. The veloity v is the veloity of rotation of the Earth around the pole axis, at the loation where the experiment is done. The distane is the distane between New York and San Franiso (dotted line on figure 3). After the initial synhronization of lok with a mobile atomi lok alled, that lok is moved from New York to San Franiso at a onstant altitude and slow veloity (see figure 3). The onstant altitude (at sea level) avoids other orretions due to the hange of gravitational energy, whih are irrelevant in this paper. The equivalent of suh an experiment has been done by Sadeh [3] using a truk ontaining a number of aurate atomi loks, previously synhronized with a primary standard of time. In the truk, the moving loks were sent down aross USA. This experiment is reported in Siene [4]. Using the GPS orretion (whih is mathematially idential to equation 13, the orret time is set up between lok in New York and lok in San Franiso. Clok Synhronization on the Rotating Earth. Figure 3 The reader must be aware of the fundamental priniples of physis involved in the GPS. The standards for the synhronization of loks stations used by the Global Positioning System have been published in 1990 by the International Radio Consultative Committee: International Teleommuniation Union CCIR [5] whih uses similar rules as the 1980 publiation of the CCDS (Comité Consultatif pour la définition de la Seonde: Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) [6]. The Global Positioning System (GPS) determines that after lok moves away from lok in New York, toward lok in San Franiso, its display aumulates an extra 14 ns (approximately) with respet to lok. We know that due to the Earth rotation, between N.Y. and S.F. lok moves at veloity (v-), whih is the veloity of rotation of the Earth "v" minus the veloity of the truk "". Therefore 14 ns are subtrated to its display at its arrival in order to give a orret synhronization of time on lok in S.F.. This orretion is idential to equation 13 in this paper. This orretion is the same as the one programmed automatially in the GPS. Experimentally, an equivalent experiment has also been done arrying a lok between Washington and Tokyo by Saburi et al. [7]. It is then an experimental fat that the two loks ( and ) are not naturally synhronized at the same value, as a result of the disordant Einstein's synhronization method as explained above. There is another well-known way to synhronize the loks between these two stations ( and ). It is done sending radio signals transmitted simultaneously (east-west and west-east) between these two ities. Again, it is observed that a simultaneous transmission of radio signals between New York and San Franiso does not give "diretly" the same orret lok display (time) in both ities. There is a differene of about 14 ns that must be subtrated to the lok in San Franiso in order to get the orret GPS time. This orretion is idential to the one when we are arrying loks. This orretion orresponds to a hange of veloity v between stations. This GPS synhronization has been verified in numerous experiments. It is idential to the alulations presented in this paper and also to the Sagna's effet, (whih is inluded in the GPS). Among the GPS list of orretions, there is a orretion involving a parameter taking into aount how many Earth meridians are 7

8 rossed by light or by the moving lok, between the two loations. Kelly (8) explains that the orretion used by the GPS is: GPS(orretion ) A E where is the angular veloity of rotation of the Earth, A E is the projeted area on the Earth equator plane of the path used by light (or by a slowly moving lok) between the two stations. We define as the distane between the two stations, both moving at veloity v. The irumferene of the Earth is alled "ir". Therefore the area A E is AE r 3 ir The angular veloity is equal to v/r. The irumferene of the Earth is r. Equation 3 in equation gives: v GPS(orretion ) 4 We see that the GPS orretion of loks (4) is idential to the Sagna effet, but also perfetly idential to equation 13. When a lok moves eastward, we understand that the veloity of the lok is added to the Earth veloity so that the term beomes larger (for the moving mass ), than for masses and whih do not possess that extra veloity. Consequently, the lok moving eastward runs at a slower rate. Consequently, the "Einstein's Clok Synhronization Method" is not ompatible with the time given by the GPS and the Sagna effet must be added. We finally onlude that the differene of lok synhronization given by equation 13 is an experimental fat that has been observed when setting up the Global Positioning System. The veloity of light is equal to with respet to the non-rotating frame. Relativity is useless. 9 - SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE GPS WITHOUT CROSSING MERIDIANS. Other experiments an be realized to test the differene of synhronization (time) between loks. Experiments, with north-south displaements of loks, have also been verified experimentally. Instead of exhanging diretly the radio signals or moving loks between New York (N.Y.) and San Franiso (S.F.) as illustrated on figure 3, let us assume that a radio signal is sent from New York to a station at the North Pole (N.P.) of the Earth before being refleted (or re-emitted) toward San Franiso. This an be done using a satellite loated above the North Pole. In this ase, in agreement with the GPS, we observe that the simultaneous exhange of radio synhronization (of light) between and, does not show the differene of 14 ns, sine light never travels aross meridians, as illustrated on figure 3. Then, light never has to move diretly against the Earth veloity of rotation. The projetion of the light path on the area A, defined above [equation 3] is zero, beause light travels along the meridians, via the North Pole. Of ourse, there is a higher order orretion related to the transverse veloity of light with v that an be onsidered, but for the moment, this is learly not observable experimentally. A similar result is obtained when we arry an atomi lok, at onstant geodesi altitude above sea level in the north-south diretion from New York to the North Pole (N.P.). Of ourse, in that ase, lok might inrease its rate beause of the derease of tangential veloity of Earth rotation at higher latitudes. However, it has been demonstrated that the flatness of the Earth is suh that the gravitational potential at the pole ompensates exatly for the loss of rotational veloity v. Sine no meridians are rossed, the GPS orretly alulates a zero orretion on lok, at its arrival at the North Pole. For the same reason, a null orretion is also alulated on lok by the GPS when it is moved from the North Pole (N.P.) to San Franiso (S.F.). Either using simultaneous light transmission or arrying a lok, it is remarkable that both methods of synhronization of loks between New York and San Franiso, aross the North Pole, give an idential zero orretion. However, when the radio signal or the moving lok, rosses the meridians, the orretion of 14 ns, as alulated by equation 13, appears in both methods THE ONE-WAY VELOCITY OF LIGHT MEASUREMENT WITH THE GPS. Knowing that the Sagna effet, the GPS, all the related experiments desribed above and also using Newton physis lead to idential results, we an rely on the GPS data. Consequently, the GPS is a reliable tool to measure diretly the one-way veloity of light. Let us start our experiment with an atomi lok at the North Pole of the Earth. At this loation, there is evidently no problem about the Earth rotation (whih is absent). From the North Pole (N. P.), let us initiate an independent synhronization with the two loks and loated respetively in New York and in San Franiso. Sine both methods, (transmission of simultaneous radio signals or arrying an atomi lok) lead to the same result, we an use the synhronization method that we prefer. From the North Pole, and moving along the meridians, the projetion of the path on the Earth equator A E is zero. Consequently, synhronizations of the loks in N.Y. and S.F. with the one at the North Pole do not need any orretion (A E = 0 in equation ). 8

9 Two loks in San Franiso and in New York are in perfet synhronization. Using this synhronization, let us measure the veloity of light between N.Y to S.F. and also between S.F. and N.Y. Let the observer in New York send a radio signal (aross the meridians) to San Franiso at the same time another radio signal travels in the opposite diretion. This simultaneous exhange of radio signals an be done using the refration of the ionosphere or via a satellite at a low altitude above the same meridian. Sine the two loks have been previously aurately synhronized, the absolute time of emission and reeption an be measured diretly on eah loal loks ( and ). If the path length of the radio signal is not muh longer than the shortest path (passing aross the meridians), the average time interval measured simultaneously in both diretions is about miroseonds. However, an aurate measurement of the time interval given by the GPS show that light takes an extra miroseond for light to travel eastward (from S.F. to N.Y.). Also light arrives at the western station (from N.Y. to S.F.) miroseond before the average miroseonds interval needed to travel a distane of about 4500 km. Sine there is a differene of miroseond in eah diretion, this shows that light moves at a different veloity eastward than westward. We alulate that the veloity "v" of rotation of the Earth at the latitude of those ities is about one millionth of the veloity of light. From the above data, the time interval for light from New York toward the approahing San Franiso is also about one millionth shorter. Also the time interval for light to move from San Franiso to New York (whih moves away) is about one millionth longer. Clearly, the veloity of light, with respet to an observer resting on the Earth surfae, is +v between N.Y. and S.F. and -v between S.F. and N.Y. Therefore the veloity of light is only with respet to the non-rotating frame ABSOLUTE FRAME OF REFERENCE. One must onlude that the GPS and all the related experiments give a striking proof that the veloity of light is not onstant with respet to an observer, ontrary to Einstein's hypotheses. The veloity of light is -v in one diretion and +v in the other. The veloity of light is equal to with respet to an absolute frame in spae. This is now an experimental fat. Finally, we have seen how it is apparently onstant in all frames using proper values due to the synhronization used in physis. We have onsidered here the veloity of light with respet to a group of stars around the Sun. However, there is nothing that says that that star luster is at an absolute rest. It probably moves around our galaxy whih itself, moves around the loal luster of galaxies. From what we have seen here, we see that the star luster mentioned above is just another moving frame, in whih again, we have an apparent veloity of light equal to in all diretions beause we do not know yet, how to get an absolute synhronization of loks. It does not seem to exist a simple way to use light in the above experiments, to determine the absolute veloity with respet to the fundamental frame in the universe. We have mentioned in a previous papers [9] that there seems to be an absolute frame of referene related to the 3K-radiation dipole in spae. However, other than using the 3K radiation, light seems to be inadequate, to verify our absolute veloity with respet to an absolute frame. It exists however another solution to loate that absolute frame, but this is beyond the sope of this paper. 1 - COMMENTS. Most physiists believe that the veloity of light is onstant with respet to all frames. As explained above, this represents a serious diffiulty when "logi" is onsidered. Let us go bak to the question: The veloity of light is "" with respet to what? The priniple of mass-energy onservation implies that light moves at a onstant veloity with respet to an absolute frame. Furthermore in all other frames, the veloity of light is measured to be onstant (equal to ), but it is an "illusion" due to Einstein's disordant lok synhronization. Some sientists suggest the existene of an "aether" to arry light. A simple "aether" hypothesis leads to an observation of the veloity of light that ould be measured diretly as v with respet to the observer. This is not the ase. One extremely important point that omes out of this paper and from the book [1] and from several related papers (10, 11) is that it exists absolutely no observational justifiation to assume that an aether an possess its own energy that an be borrowed when needed. On the ontrary, all the physial phenomena are explained naturally without having to borrow any energy from an assumed medium. Finally, it is not known yet what fundamental physial property of mass-energy is involved in the absolute determination of that absolute frame of referene. One must onlude that there exists no spae-time distortion of any kind. It is no longer neessary to fasinate people with the magi of relativity. Unless we aept the absurd solution that the distane between N.Y. to S.F. is smaller than the distane between S.F. and N.Y., we have to aept that the veloity of light is different in eah diretion. As mentioned above, this differene is even programmed in the GPS omputer in order to get the orret Global Positioning. Unless the GPS is a omplete failure, this proves that the experimental veloity of light with respet to the moving observer is v REFERENCES. [1] P. MARMET, Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classial Mehanis, Newton Physis Books (1997), 401 Ogilvie, Glouester, On. Canada K1J 7N4. 9

10 [] P. MARMET, Classial Desription of the Advane of the Perihelion of Merury, Physis Essays Vol. 1. No: 4, [3] SADEH et al. Siene 16, (1968) [4] STRAUMANN, N. General Relativity and Relativisti Astrophysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Seond printing 1991, pp. 459, [5] CCIR Internat. Teleom, Union Annex to Vol 7, No: Geneva (1990). [6] CCDS Bur. Int. Poids et Mes. 9 th Sess., 14-17, [7] SABURI et al. IEEE Trans. IM5, 473-7, [8] A. G. KELLY, "The Sagna Effet and the GPS Synhronization of Clok-Stations" Ph. D. HDS Energy Ltd., Celbridge, Co. Kildare, Ireland. Also, A. G. Kelly, Inst. Engrs. Ireland 1995 and 1996, Monographs 1 &. [9] P. MARMET, The Origin of the 3K Radiation, Apeiron Vol, Nr, 1. January 1995 [10] P. MARMET, Classial Desription of the Advane of the Perihelion of Merury, Physis Essays, Vol. 1, No: 3, [11] P. MARMET, C. COUTURE, Relativisti Defletion of Light Near the Sun Using Radio Signals and Visible Light. Physis Essays Vol. 1, No: 1, May,

### Chapter 38A - Relativity. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

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