INTERFACIAL SHEAR STRENGTH IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES. Jim Rogers and John Simonsen Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

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1 INTERFACIAL SHEAR STRENGTH IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES Jim Rogers and John Simonsen Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

2 Overview Interphase testing Coupling agent (compatibilizer) mechanism Pullout test Method development Pitfalls and limits Results Conclusions

3 Interfacial Shear Stress t π r 2 dσ max = -2 π r dx t t = σ dx max /2 s s = L/r σ σ + dσ x From Load bearing fibre composites, M.R. Piggott, Pergamon Press

4 Fragmentation

5 Microdroplet Tension Knife edge matrix

6 Microcompression fiber Loading head matrix

7 Pullout Tests matrix M.R. Piggott and S.R. Dai, 1991, Poly. Eng. Sci. 31(17)

8 PULL-0UT TESTS ON WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

9 Wood-plastic Composites (WPCs) Woodfibers are NOT glass fibers or carbon fibers! Irregular surface Non-homogeneous properties ((, strength, modulus) Enormous size distribution Flexible Hydrophilic Inconsistent shape, e.g. ribbons, squares Low aspect ratio

10 Estimation Of Fiber-Matrix Interfacial Shear Strength In Lignocellulosic- Thermoplastic Composites Thin dowels set into low density polyethylene in a teflon cup Melt in oven, push lightly Cool slowly in oven Pull Reasonably consistent data, but results not compared to mechanical properties A.R. Sanadi, R.M. Rowell, R.A. Young Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 266, pp

11 Surface Modification And Adhesion Mechanisms In Woodfiber-Polypropylene Composites Piece of wood veneer held in a jig in a dish and PP melted around it Cooled slowly Pulled on instron Sample not round, but rectangular No comparison with mechanical properties M. Kazayawoko, J.J. Balatinecz, L.M. Matuana J. Mat. Sci. 34:

12 Study Protocol Pull-out sample should experience same process as WPC Compare interfacial shear stress (IFSS) to yield strength of WPC sample Observe effect of coupling agent (compatibilizer)

13 Pull-Out Sample ¼ dowel Machined to 5 mm to expose fresh surface Machined on lathe to square plastic to dowel 3 mm Plastic button Cut to length on saw

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21 Pitfalls And Challenges Sample geometry Dowel diameter Too small, breaks in machining Too big, breaks in Brabender What embedded length is best? Too much, get wood failure To little and get plastic flow of button during test, higher variability

22 Pitfalls And Challenges Surface quality of sample Surface inactivation Sanding causes out of round Machining causes chip out of surface Wetting of wood surface nonuniform on the same sample and between samples Inhomogeneous surface energy of wood

23 Pitfalls And Challenges Matching experience of dowel to experience of wood particles Liquid compatibilizers a special challenge Fluid dynamics in mixing bowl not uniform on dowel surface Retained stresses in final sample

24 COUPLING AGENT

25 COMPATIBILIZER = DIBLOCK COPOLYMER plastic wood

26 COMPATIBILIZER = BRUSH (on filler) COPOLYMER plastic wood

27 COMPATIBILIZER = BRUSH (in matrix) COPOLYMER wood

28 Maleic Anhydride-modified Polyolefin Random Graft wood

29 Maleic Anhydride-modified Polyolefin Improved Synthesis wood

30 RESULTS

31 Typical Pull-Out Data Force (Load/Circumference*Length) (lb/in^2) Extension (in)

32 IFSS, MPa Pine-Filled HDPE % MAPE MOR, MPa % MAPE 1% MAPE 26 control

33 Pine Flour-Filled PP MOR, MPa % 1% 4% 35 control IFSS, MPa

34 Oak-Filled PP % 4% 1% MOR, MPa control IFSS, MPa

35 Liquid Compatibilizer Systems Novel compatibilizer system developed by Kaichang Li s lab at OSU Compatibilizer system composed of Kymene And stearic anhydride

36 Kymene Reactions R Cl N OH R' n R 1 NHR 2 A: homo-crosslinking R N OH R' n 2 N R R 1 B: Co-crosslinking with Wood-CO 2 H R N R' no OH O Wood

37 Protocol Kymene produced as a 12.5% aqueous solution Polymerizes upon drying Added to wood flour + stearic anhydride, then dried Attempted to expose dowels to same process as wood flour, however..

38 Liquid Compatibilizers MOR and IFSS showed no correlation or pattern Liquid compatibilizers inappropriate

39 All Data MOR vs. IFSS (all data) MOR (MPa) y = x R 2 = IFSS (MPa)

40 Conclusions A difficult experiment Partial correlation observed with HDPE, PP Oak samples showed no correlation with IFSS Liquid-based compatibilizers inappropriate Presence of dowels in polymer mixer may introduce systematic error Further refinement in test protocol may show improved results

41 QUESTIONS?

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