Dr. Prahallada M.C* and Dr. Prakash K.B**

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1 Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 Strength and Workability Characteristics Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete Produced From Recycled Aggregates Dr. Prahallada M.C* and Dr. Prakash K.B** * Pressor, Department Civil Engineering, Christ University Faculty Engineering, Bangalore-5674 (Karnataka), INDIA. ** Pressor, Dean for PG and Research, Department Civil Engineering, K L E S Engineering College and Technology, Belgaum-598, (Karnataka), INDIA ABSTRACT The fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is relatively a new construction material developed through extensive research during the last two decades. It has already found a wide range practical applications and has proved reliable in construction and is a material having superior performance characteristic. The addition into the concrete has been found to improve several its properties like tensile, cracking resistance, impact, wear and tear, ductility, fatigue resistance etc. Many types like steel, carbon, GI, glass, asbestos etc. can be used in fibre reinforced concrete. Waste plastics can also be used as. The disposing waste plastic is causing environmental pollution. The plastic is a nonbiodegradable material, neither decays nor degenerate it either in water or in soil. In turn it pollutes the water and soil. The plastic if burnt releases many toxic gases, which are very dangerous for the health. Such plastic, which is non-biodegradable material, can be used in concrete in the form to impact some additional desirable qualities to the concrete. This paper presents the Strength and workability results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete (WPFRC) produced from recycled aggregates. The different percentages waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete used in the experimentation are %,.5%, %,.5%, %,.5% and % (by volume fraction) with an aspect ratio 5. The results are compared with the plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates. Key words: Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Recycled Aggregates, Waste Plastic Fibres, Strength and Workability Characteristics. INTRODUCTION Concrete is the most widely used construction material. Because its specialty being cast in any desirable shape, it has replaced stone and brick masonry. Plain concrete is weak in tension and has limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Micro cracks are present in concrete because its poor tensile. The cracks propagate with the application load, leading to brittle fracture concrete. Micro cracks in concrete are formed during its hardening stage. A discontinuous heterogeneous system exists even before the application any external load. When the load is applied, micro cracks start developing along the planes, which may experience relatively low tensile strains, at about 5-% the ultimate in compression. Further application the load leads to uncontrolled growth micro cracks. The low resistance to tensile crack propagation in turn results in a low fracture toughness, and limited resistance to impact and explosive loading. The low tensile concrete is being compensated in several ways, and this has been achieved by the use reinforcing bars and also by applying pre-stressing force. Though these methods provide tensile to concrete, they do not increase the inherent tensile concrete itself. These deficiencies have led researchers to investigate and develop a material, which could perform better in areas where conventional concrete has several limitations. One such development has been two phase composite materials i.e., fibre reinforced concrete, in which cement based matrix is reinforced with ordered or random distribution. Fibres in the cement based matrix acts as cracks arrester, which restricts the growth flaws in the matrix, preventing these from enlarging under load, into cracks, which eventually cause failure. Prevention propagation cracks originating from internal flaws can result in improvements in static and dynamic properties the matrix. The idea mixing more than one material to obtain a composite is not new. The two -phase concepts in which two materials are combined to produce a composite has been known since ancient times. The use straw to en sun dried mud 79 P a g e

2 bricks and stabilize their dimensional stability predates the use Portland cement. Mortar and concrete are themselves essentially two-phase composite systems in which relatively stiff aggregate particles are embedded in a st brittle matrix imparting stiffness and stability to the composite. The behavior mortar and concrete indicates the role fibre reinforcement the cement matrix. The idea that concrete can be ened by the inclusion was first put forward by Porter in 9, but little progress was made in the development this material until 96 when Romualdi and Batson published their classic paper on the subject. Since then there has been a wave interest in fibre reinforced concrete and several kind such as steel, fibrillated polypropylene, nylon, asbestos, coir, jute sisal, kenaf, glass, carbon have been tried. Even though plastic is making wonders in all the fields, it is endangering the environment. It is causing environmental pollution in different ways. The waste plastic is a health hazard, nonbiodegradable/non-perishable material; it neither decays nor degenerates either in soil or in water. It cannot be burnt since it releases many toxic gases causing air pollution. When the waste plastic did not find any place in America and Europe they dumped million tones waste plastics in Atlantic and pacific Oceans, resulting the death many aquatic lives. Thus, plastic is causing a tremendous environmental pollution. Many researchers are trying to use this plastic in a safe manner.. EXPERIMENTAL WORK. Materials used Cement: Ordinary Portland Cement-4 grade was used having a specific gravity.5 and it satisfies the requirements IS: specifications. Fine aggregates: Locally available sand collected from the bed river Bhadra was used as fine aggregate. The sand used was having fineness modulus.96 and conformed to grading zone-iii as per IS: 8-97 specification. Coarse aggregates: The crushed stone aggregate were collected from the local quarry. The coarse aggregates used in the experimentation were mm and down size aggregate and tested as per IS: 8-97 and (I, II and III) specifications. The aggregates used were having fineness modulus.9. Recycled aggregates: Recycled aggregates were collected from demolished concrete slabs, beams and columns. The aggregates used in the experimentation were mm and down size Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 aggregates and tested as per IS: 8-97 and 86 (I, II and III) specifications and having fineness modulus.75. Physical properties tested recycled coarse aggregate are given in Table. and. respectively Fibres: The waste plastic were obtained by cutting waste plastic pots, buckets, cans, drums and utensils. The waste plastic obtained were all recycled plastics. The were cut from steel wire cutter and it is labour oriented. The thickness waste plastic was mm and its breadth was kept 5mm and these were straight. The different volume fraction and suitable aspect ratio were selected and used in this investigation Water: Ordinary potable water free from organic content, turbidity and salts was used for mixing and for curing throughout the investigation. Super plasticizer: To impart the additional desired properties, a super plasticizer (Conplast SP-4) was used. The dosage super plasticizer adopted in the investigation was % (by weight cement. Experimental procedure Concrete was prepared by using design mix proportion :.74:.4 with a W/C ratio.46, which correspond to M grade concrete. The different percentages waste plastic fibre like %,.5%, %,.5%, %,.5% and % (by volume fraction) were adopted in the programme. Waste plastic having an aspect ratio 5 (thickness = mm, length = mm and breadth = 5mm) were added in the dry mix. All the specimens were cast and tested after 8 days curing as per IS specifications. The results are compared with the WPFRC produced from conventional aggregates. The compressive specimens were dimension 5*5*5 mm. The tensile specimens were dimensions 5 mm and length mm. indirect tension test (Brazilian test) was conducted on these specimens. Flexural specimens were dimensions **5mm.Two point loading was adopted during the testing flexural specimens on a span 4 mm. The impact test specimens were dimensions 5*5* mm. A steel ball weighing. kg was dropped from a height one meter on the impact specimens which were kept on the floor. The care was taken to see that the ball was dropped at the center point specimen every time. The number blows required to cause first crack and final failure were noted. The numbers blows were converted into impact energy by the formula- Impact energy = mghn = w/g x g x h x N = whn (N-m) 79 P a g e

3 Where, m = mass the ball w = weight the ball =. kg =. N g =Acceleration due to gravity IS sieve size Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 h =Height the drop =m N = number blows to cause the failure Table.: Sieve analysis recycled coarse aggregate (IS: 8-979) Weight Cumulative Cumulative % Cumulative retained weight retained weight % in grams in grams retained passing ISI permissible limit.5mm mm mm mm pan Total Fineness modulus = 75./ =.75 Table.: Properties tested recycled coarse aggregate (IS: 8-96) Properties Results Moisture content (%) 5. Water absorption (%) 7. Specific gravity (SSD).5 Impact value (%). Crushing value (%) 4.. Experimental results-the following tables give the details the experimental results. Compressive test results: The following Tables. and. give the compressive test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates with different percentage addition waste plastic. Table.: Compressive test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates addition Weight specimen (N) Density (kn/m ) density (kn/m ) Failure load (kn) Compressive A A A B B B C C C D D D E E E F F F G G G compressive 5.99 increase or decrease compressive w. r. t reference mix P a g e

4 Compressive. Dr. Prahallada M.C, Dr. Prakash K.B/ International Journal Engineering Research and Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 Table.: Compressive test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using conventional aggregates addition Weight specimen (N) Density (kn/m ) density (kn/m ) Failure load (kn) Compressive compressive increase or decrease compressive w. r. t Reference mix A A A B B B C C C D D D E E E F F F G G G The above results can be depicted in the form graph as shown fig Recycled aggregate Conventional aggregate Fig.: Variation compressive waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates 794 P a g e

5 Vol., Issue 4, pp Tensile test results: The following Tables. and.4 give the tensile test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates with different percentage addition waste plastic. Table.: Tensile test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates Failure Tensile increase addition load tensile or decrease tensile (kn) w. r. t reference mix A.5 s --- A A.5 A B B 5. + B 7.8 C C 4.9 C D D. - D.97 E E E.97.5 F F 8.54 F 8.54 G G 85.6 Table.4: Tensile test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using conventional aggregates addition Failure load (kn) Tensile tensile increase or decrease tensile w. r. t reference mix A A A B B B C C C D D D E 6.68 E E F.5 F.97 F 4. - G.99 G G The above results can be depicted in the form graph as shown fig. 795 P a g e

6 Tensile Dr. Prahallada M.C, Dr. Prakash K.B/ International Journal Engineering Research and Vol., Issue 4, pp Recycled aggregate Conventional aggregate Fig.: Variation tensile waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates. Flexural test results: The following Tables.5 and.6 give the flexural test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates with different percentage addition waste plastic. Table.5: Flexural test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates addition Failure load (kn) Flexural A.5 5 A.8 5. A B B B C C C D D D E E E F 8..8 F F G 7..9 G 7..8 A 7.5 flexural increase or decrease flexural w. r. t reference mix P a g e

7 Flexural (Mpa) Dr. Prahallada M.C, Dr. Prakash K.B/ International Journal Engineering Research and Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 Table.6: Flexural test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using conventional aggregates addition Failure load (kn) Flexural flexural increase or decrease flexural w. r. t reference mix A 5 6 A A B B B C 8 7. C C D D D E E E F F F G.5 5 G G The above results can be depicted in the form graph as shown fig Recycled aggregate Conventional aggregate Fig.: Variation flexural waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates.4 Impact test results: The following Tables.7 and.8 give the impact test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates with different percentage addition waste plastic. Table.7: Impact test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates 797 P a g e

8 addition Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 number blows required to cause Number blows required to cause first crack final failure first crack final failure Impact (N-m) required to cause first crack final failure increase or decrease impact w. r. t reference mix first crack final failure A 6 A 7 A B B B 4 C 6 6 C C 5 4 D D D 4 6 E 4 5 E E 5 4 F F F 4 G 4 8 G G Table.8: Impact test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using conventional aggregates addition Number blows required to number blows required Impact (N-m) required increase or decrease impact cause to cause to cause first final first final first final crack failure crack failure crack failure A 7 A 4 7 A 5 8 B 6 7 B 7 8 B 6 6 C 7 7 C 6 8 C 8 9 D 6 7 D 7 8 D 6 7 E 5 7 E 7 8 E 6 6 F 5 6 F 6 7 F 5 6 G 5 5 G 5 5 G 4 4 The above results can be depicted in the form graph as shown fig.4 w. r. t reference mix first final crack failure P a g e

9 Slump (mm) Impact (N-m) Dr. Prahallada M.C, Dr. Prakash K.B/ International Journal Engineering Research and Vol., Issue 4, pp First crack - Recycled aggregate Finalfailure - Recycled aggregate First crack - Conventional aggregate Final failure - Conventional aggregate % addition plastic Fig.4: Variation impact waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates.5 Workability test results: The following Table.9 give the overall results workability waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates with different percentage addition waste plastic. Table.9: Workability test results waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete Using recycled aggregates Using conventional aggregates addition Slump Compaction Slump Compaction fibers (mm) factor flow (mm) factor flow (Ref mix) The above results can be depicted in the form graph as shown fig.5 to % addition plastic Recycled aggregate Conventiona laggregate Fig.5: Variation slump waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates 799 P a g e

10 flow Compaction factor Dr. Prahallada M.C, Dr. Prakash K.B/ International Journal Engineering Research and Vol., Issue 4, pp Recycled aggregate Conventional aggregate Fig.6: Variation compaction factor waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates Recycled aggregate Conventional aggregate Fig.7: Variation percentage flow waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from using recycled and conventional aggregates 4. OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS Based on the experimental results the following observation were made. It has been observed that the compressive waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates goes on increasing until % addition waste plastic. After %, the compressive starts decreasing i.e. the maximum compressive waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete can be obtained with % addition waste plastic fibre. This is true for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates also. Therefore, the higher compressive can be achieved with % addition and the percentage increase in the compressive is % and 4% respectively for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced with recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates. It has been observed that the tensile waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates goes on increasing until % addition waste plastic. After %, the tensile starts decreasing i.e. the maximum tensile waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete can be obtained with % addition waste plastic fibre. This is true for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates also. Therefore, the higher tensile can be achieved with % addition and the percentage increase in the tensile is 8% and % respectively for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced with recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates. It has been observed that the flexural waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates goes on increasing until % addition waste plastic. After %, the flexural starts decreasing i.e. the maximum 8 P a g e

11 flexural waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete can be obtained with % addition waste plastic fibre. This is true for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates also. Therefore, the higher flexural can be achieved with % addition and the percentage increase in the flexural is % and 6% respectively for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced with recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates. It has been observed that the impact waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates goes on increasing until % addition waste plastic. After %, the impact starts decreasing i.e. the maximum impact waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete can be obtained with % addition waste plastic fibre. This is true for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates also. Therefore, the higher impact can be achieved with % addition and the percentage increase in the impact for first crack are 8% and 75% and final failure are 4% and 45% respectively for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced with recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates. This may be due to the addition waste plastic may fit in and interlock the aggregates thereby increasing the characteristics. Thus, it can be concluded that the higher characteristics waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates can be obtained with % addition in it.. It has been observed that the compressive, tensile, flexural, and impact waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates is higher than waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from recycled aggregates. This is true for all percentage addition waste plastic. The reduction waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates may be due to the fact that the recycled aggregates show less mechanical properties than the conventional aggregates. This may be also due to the fact that recycled aggregates may develop microcracks inside their body when they were previously loaded. Attached mortar to recycled aggregates may also contribute in bringing down the properties. Thus it can be concluded that the properties waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from recycled aggregates are slightly lower than waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 produced from conventional aggregates.. It has been observed that the workability waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates as measured from slump, compaction factor and percentage flow is maximum when % are used. Addition more than % waste plastic will decrease the workability. This is true for waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates also. Therefore, the maximum workability is achieved with the addition % waste plastic. This may be due to the fact that addition more than % waste plastic may obstruct the flow concrete creating many interlocks with aggregates. Thus it can be concluded that % addition waste plastic will yield good workability. 4. It has been observed that the workability waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using conventional aggregates as measured from slump, compaction factor and percentage flow is more as compared to waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates. This is true for all percentage addition waste plastic. This is may due to the fact that the adhered cement particles to the recycled aggregates absorb more water from the system and reduce the flowing nature concrete. One more reason may be that the adhered cement particles to the recycled aggregates make the surface aggregate rough thereby reducing the flowing nature concrete. Thus it can be concluded that the workability waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using conventional aggregates is higher than that recycled aggregates. 5. CONCLUSIONS. It can be concluded that higher and workability characteristics waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates and conventional aggregates can be obtained with % addition into it.. It can be concluded that the properties waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from recycled aggregates are slightly lower than waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from conventional aggregates.. It can be concluded that the workability waste plastic fibre reinforced concrete produced from recycled aggregates is less than that conventional aggregates. 8 P a g e

12 Vol., Issue 4, pp ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors indebted to Vice-Chancellor, Christ University and Fr.Benny, Director Christ University Faculty Engineering, Bangalore for their encouragement 7. REFERENCES:. Job Thomas & Syam Prakash V, Strength and Behavior Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Journal Structural Engg Vol.6, No. October 999, and pp Karthikeyan O. H. V. Kumar, D. Singhal and B.D. Nautiyal., Fibres for Fibre Reinforced Concrete-Their Properties Applications and Mixing : A Review Report Indian Concrete Institute Journal, March 99, pp Mostafa Tavakoli and Parviz Soroushian., Strengths Recycled Aggregate Concrete Made Using Field-Demolished Concrete as Aggregate, ACI Materials Journal, March-April 996, pp Mandal.S and Ghosh A., Study on the Properties Recycled Aggregate Concrete, Indian Concrete Institute, Bulletin No.68 pp Padmini A.K, Mathews M. S and R.K. Ramamurthy., Behavior Recycled Aggregate Concrete, ICI Journal Oct-Dec pp Prakash K.B., Konnur B. A and K. T. Krishnaswamy., Effect Super Plasticizers on the Fibre Reinforced Concrete produced from High Grade Cements Published in Asia-Pacific Specialty Conference on Fibre Reinforced Concrete: Singapore, August8-9, Swamy R.N (Edited), Fibre-Cement Products and Concrete, The International Journal Cement composites and Light weight Concrete, May 989, Vol., and No. pp P a g e

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