Brief overview of North American Cordilleran geology by Cin Ty Lee. Topography map of North America

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1 Brief overview of North American Cordilleran geology by Cin Ty Lee Note: make sure to take notes as I will talk or sketch on the board many things that are not presented explicitly in these slides Topography map of North America

2 Topography map

3 How does the North thamerican Cordillera fit into a global lcontext? t? Dickinson 2004

4 P wave tomography: Seismic structure beneath western USA Burdick et al. 2008

5 Crustal provinces of North America (Laurentia) Proterozoic and Archean terranes were already assembled by 1.6 Ga Hoffman, 1988

6 Crustal provinces in southwestern USA Hoffman, 1988 Bennett and DePaolo, 1987

7 Some examples of tectonic marginsfor your reference Dickinson and Snyder, 1978

8 1.1 Ga = Rodinia Super continent (Grenvillian age) Neo Proterozoic = Rodinia breaks up western margin of Laurentia represents a passive margin due to opening of the Panthalassan ocean

9 Ma Western margin of Laurentia represents a passive margin Dickinson and Snyder, 1978

10 Ma Passive margin is interrupted in Devonian times by the accretion of island arcs Antler and Sonoma orogenies Accretion of allochthonous terranes to the western margin of the North hamerican craton

11 Antler/Sonoma orogenies result in the accretion of Paleozoic island arc terranes to western North America

12 Permian Formation of Pangea western margin of North hamerica now dominated dby subduction zone

13 Ma Subduction results in continued accretion of fringing island arcs and the generation of continental magmatic arcs Sierra Nevada batholith Sevier and Laramide Orogenies

14 Ma Sevier orogeny and continental t arc magmatism Thin skinned deformation thrust sheets

15 One view of convergent margin of western North America between My DeCelles, 2004

16 Late Cretaceous

17 Present day geologic g map of western North America, showing salient Cretaceous and younger tectonic features DeCelles, 2004

18 Cretaceous (Turonian) Generation of deep basins behind the arc aka Cretaceous Inland Sea high organic content (black shales, coal) bentonite b t (l (clays formed dfrom ash) DeCelles, 2004

19 Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Isopach map back arc basins DeCelles, 2004

20 Back arc basins may be related to dynamic topography and flexure DeCelles, 2004 Taken after Gurnis

21 Migration of arc magmatic front eastward ~70 Ma, Sierran arc magmatism cuts off, and then sweeps eastward

22 Eastward migration of arc front is thought to be related to flat subduction beginning at ~74 Ma and continuing until ~40 Ma Dickinson and Snyder, 1978

23 Flat subduction results in thick skinned compressional deformation LARAMIDE OROGENY basement core uplifts examples of Laramide uplifts include the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau, Wind River Range, Tetons End result of Laramide orogeny is a thickened crust

24 Magmatism associated with the Laramide orogeny Andesitic volcanoes near Yellowstone (the Absaroka Range) are associated with Laramide magmatism

25 At ~30 Ma, compressional forces along the edge of and beneath North America begin to decrease asthe Pacific Farallon ridge approaches the margin. Flat subducting Farallon plate lt rolls back or collapses Laramide orogeny ends Thickened North American Cordillera begins to collapse gravitationally

26 Collision of Pacific Farallon Ridge with North American trench, terminates subduction and generates a transform fault (the San Andreas). A slabless window opens up beneath western USA. Basin and Range style extension kicks in

27

28

29 Late Cenozoic lithosphere extension results in the generation of decompression magmatism in the underlying asthenosphere Yellowstone hotspot appears (not obviously related to extension; thought to be a plume)

30 DeCelles, 2004

31 Geologic summary Dickinson, 2004

32 Useful Websites Lava and magma database for western USA Global supercontinent cycles SanAndreasFault plate reconstructions (Tanya Atwater) San Andreas Fault plate reconstructions (Tanya Atwater)

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