Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients

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1 World Biomes Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors high biodiversity and biomass both hot and moist; ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor allowing nutrients to be recycled. <1 cm of topsoil About 100 in/yr of rainfall Bougainvillea Sunlight is a major limiting factor Plants grow in layers (canopy receives most light) Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients Little sun reaches the floor Many symbiotic relationships Live in different levels of canopy Threats to the Tropical Rainforest The Temperate Rainforest Pacific Coastal Forest Temperate Rainforest is defined as a forest in the mid-latitudes that receives more than inches of rainfall a year (rainfall in SE AK varies from inches per year) Mild, wet winters and cool, foggy or cloudy summers Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, and summer temperatures seldom exceed 80 Can be found in the Pacific NW of North America, New Zealand, Tasmania and Patagonia. Temperate Rainforest Map The temperate rain forests of the Pacific Northwest develop where moisture-rich air from the Pacific Ocean rise and become trapped by coastal mountain ranges The moisture then condenses and returns to earth in the form of heavy rainfall and, at higher elevations, snow. Basic characteristics/requirements for a temperate rainforest: Proximity to coast Presence of coastal mountains 1

2 Minimal seasonal temperature variations (cool summers, mild winters) Lots of precipitation (hence the title rainforest ) Although climate of the Pacific Northwest varies considerably from Alaska to California, there are certain species of trees that are present throughout, which climatically unifies the region. These indicator trees are Sitka Spruce and Western Hemlock Because of ideal growing conditions (lots of moisture, lack of temperature extremes), trees in the coastal rainforest grow very large. Other indicators of the Temperate Rainforest are: Nurse logs - usually fallen Sitka Spruce upon which seedlings of trees grow. Colonnades - trees standing in a row as a result of getting their start on nurse logs. A profusion of lichens and mosses. Animals of the Temperate Rainforest While the trees and plants that make up the temperate rain forest are important, the animals that live there are equally vital. And some more animals A trip to the Temperate Rainforest wouldn t be complete with out encountering..slugs!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Temperate Deciduous Forests Location: found in temperate zone (about 48 0 North latitude) Much of the human population lives in this biome Characterized by an abundance of deciduous (leaf bearing) trees Characterized by 4 seasons More diversity in the deciduous forest vs. the coniferous forest due to increased sunlight. Trees adapt to varied climate by becoming dormant in winter Lose Winter Coat Adapt to many seasons Eat from different layers of the forest Threats to Temperate Deciduous Forests Taiga aka Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest 23 2

3 Taiga Abiotic factors Winters are long and cold Averages 100 in/yr precipitation mostly snow Soil poor in nutrients and very acidic Growing season is very short Balsam Fir Coniferous (needle-bearing) trees are abundant Roots long to anchor trees Needles long, thin and waxy Low sunlight and poor soil keeps plants from growing on forest floor Moose Adapt for cold winters Burrow, hibernate, warm coat, insulation, etc Threats to the Taiga Savannas (Tropical Grasslands) Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth. Location: Found in the tropics near equator Amount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees. The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plai Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors Rainy and dry season in/yr precipitation Fire plays a large role in this ecosystem Whistling Thorn Umbrella Thorn Acacia Adapt for short rainy season migrate as necessary Limited food leads to vertical feeding Prairie and Steppe: Grassland areas Characteristic high Winds Sod-forming grasses that won t dry out or blow away in wind. Fleabane Many adaptations to survive extremes Grasslands 3

4 Desert Abiotic factors <10 in/yr of rain Little to no topsoil due to high winds. Minerals not deep in soil. Too dry for decay Joshua Tree Desert Plant Adaptations: Spines Succulents Thick, waxy cuticle Shallow, broad roots Desert Animal Adaptations: Get water from food Thick outer coat Burrow during day Large ears Smaller animals = less surface area Tundra Abiotic Factors <25 in of rain /year Temp rarely higher than 10 0 C Permafrost layer Short growing season Perennials Woody shrubs Many visitors, migration Few predators Little Competition Mountain Vegetation (Alpine Biome) General Information Similar to tundra/artic biomes 4

5 High mountain areas: 10,000 ft+ Average temperature Summer: C Winter: Below freezing Limiting Factors: several temperature, lack of CO2, high UV wavelengths, etc. Precipitation: 30 cm/year Species Diversity Plant life- Growing season is about 180 days, and the soil is well-drained. Tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, heaths Animals- only warm-blooded animals can be found Mountain goats, sheep, elk, insects including beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies. People in the Alpines Populations in the alpine biome are specially adapted to the living conditions Larger lung capacity More hemoglobin in blood The Sherpas are the world s highest living population 5

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