Duration: 2 hours Level: Key Stage 2 N/C Links: Scientific enquiry Life processes and living things Topics: Habitats Adaptations

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1 Thank you for booking a Habitats and You Session at The Manchester Museum. This interactive session combines work on the Living Worlds gallery with object handling and investigation in the Discovery Centre. Duration: 2 hours Level: Key Stage 2 N/C Links: Scientific enquiry Life processes and living things Topics: Habitats Adaptations This session will provide your class with an opportunity to develop and apply their scientific enquiry skills and knowledge of the natural world in the unique setting of the Manchester Museum. Through a combination of gallery tasks and object based investigations, pupils will: Explore the ways in which organisms are adapted to their habitats Design a creature that is adapted to live in a particular environment This resource pack has been designed to help you to integrate your Museum session into a larger scheme of work. To get the most from your session it is suggested that you read the pack before your visit. The sheets before you arrive and Itinerary contain important information that will help you to plan your visit. Please also familiarise yourself and the class with the details provided on the museum objects, object handling and prior knowledge sheets in order to save time on the day. Pre visit activities are simple activities that have been devised to familiarise pupils with the topics that will be covered and the methods that will be used during the session. Post visit activities: having completed the session, the class may wish to continue to work on their creatures or to extend the topic through further investigations and activities.

2 The following details will help you to prepare for your museum visit. During the session, the class will be required to work in smaller groups. In order to save time on the day, please split your class into groups and allocate each group an adult helper before you arrive at the Museum: Class size Number of Groups Number of adults * More than 18 4 Minimum of 4 Less than 18 3 Minimum of 3 IMPORTANT: The session relies heavily on the involvement of the adult helpers. Adult helpers will be asked to remain with their groups throughout the session and should be prepared to both support and actively engage with pupils. *We strongly recommend that the minimum number of adults is in addition to the class teacher (i.e. for the standard class, this would be the class teacher + 4 additional adult helpers). Because the adult helpers will be working closely with their groups throughout the session, this frees the class teacher up to float around the groups, take photographs, and support the class as a whole. At The Manchester Museum we actively encourage the handling and investigation of real objects from our collections. You may find it useful to introduce the class to the different types of objects that they will encounter during the session, as detailed on the museum objects sheet. It is also useful to familiarise yourself and the class with the information and guidelines outlined on the object handling sheet. The session is appropriate for KS2 pupils and is ideally linked to habitats and adaptations topics. Whether you decide to book a session at the beginning, middle, or end of your topic, it is useful to equip your class with some basic background knowledge. Pupils should be familiar with the key words and concepts that are outlined in: prior knowledge: glossary and pre visit activity: sort it out and grouping life on earth. It is also useful if pupils have a basic level of basic knowledge about rainforests and the creatures that live there. You may find the pre visit activity: rainforests and life in the rainforest sheets useful.

3 Introducing the variety of life The session begins on the Living Worlds gallery. After a chance to explore the gallery, pupils will work in groups to complete a task about the relative abundance of different forms of life, and their distribution across the globe. prior knowledge: glossary pre visit activity: sort it out! grouping life on earth Rainforests and their inhabitants Building on this, the class will focus on rainforests. After identifying the main features of the rainforest as a habitat, the class will start to make some initial observations about the ways in which creatures are adapted to life in the rainforest. pre visit activity: rainforests life in the rainforest Introducing the task The class will then relocate to the Museum s Discovery Centre where they will be introduced to the design a creature task. Each group will be allocated a particular habitat to which their creature must be adapted. Groups will be given time to read through some background information in order to familiarise themselves with the task. pre visit activity: rainforests life in the Rainforest Investigating adaptations Using a selection of objects from the Museum s collection, each group will investigate four different topics and complete four tasks in order to gain inspiration and ideas for when they design their own creature. museum objects object handling Design time Having completed the four tasks, the groups will identify the relevant features of existing creatures that may be suitable for their own creature. Each group will work together to design one creature, and will be asked to present their work as a labelled picture. Finally, the groups will present their work to the rest of the class. post visit activity: times are changing

4 In the Museum s Discovery Centre, pupils will explore a variety of objects including stuffed or taxidermied animals and birds. There are many creatures on display in the museum. While some of them are alive (housed in the Living Animals area on floor 3), the vast majority of the animals and birds on display in the Museum (and those that will be the focus of the session) are not alive. We are often asked the following questions about the stuffed animals on display: 1. Are they real? Yes and no! They are not alive but they once were. 2. What are they made of? These objects are a mixture of natural and artificial materials. NATURAL Fur, feathers, scales this is called the skin Hard parts such as teeth, horns, shells and claws ARTIFICIAL Soft parts such as eyes, tongues and noses The filling or stuffing and often also a frame inside creatures 3. How are they made? Stuffed animals are made by taxidermists. The first task is to remove the skin from the dead creature. The skin is cleaned treated with chemicals to preserve it. The treated skin is then mounted (attached) onto a model that is the same shape and size as the creature when it was alive. Skins may be mounted in various ways on a model made of the original skeleton or a frame (made of wood, metal or wire), which has been padded out with material such as wool. on a model of the creature s body shape which has been sculpted from a special type of foam. on a plaster cast of the original creature. Once the skin has been mounted, artificial parts are added to replace soft parts that would otherwise decay, such as the eyes and nose, for example. 4. Is everything in the museum stuffed? No! As well as the stuffed animals, you may also come across the following Shells: these are just cleaned up when they arrive in the museum. Insects: these are dried out in order to preserve them. Amphibians and fish: these are kept in jars of fluid (called ethanol) to preserve them.

5 In the Museum s Discovery Centre, pupils will explore a variety of objects. These include stuffed (taxidermied) animals and birds, preserved insects and bones. Pupils will investigate three different types of object: 1. Boxed objects: Some of the objects are displayed in boxes and are therefore not available for handling. 2. Unboxed objects that cannot be touched: Some of the unboxed objects are too fragile or old to handle. These objects are clearly marked with the following symbol: 3. Unboxed objects that can be touched: Other unboxed objects are robust enough to withstand handling. These objects are clearly marked with the following symbol: In order to make the most of the time that we spend investigating objects, pupils should be familiar with the following handling rules: Only one person should touch an object at a time. Why? Because it is safer for the object and it is better for the person who is touching the object. Use only 1 finger to touch the objects: we suggest that you use the back of your finger, as this is more sensitive. Why? Because the objects are fragile and will break if they are pulled or grabbed. Stroke any furry or feathered objects as gently as you would a pet: ALWAYS go from head to tail in the direction of the fur / feathers. Why? Because otherwise, the fur / feathers will fall out! Do not lean across a table to touch an object: just move so that you are in front of the object that you wish to touch. Why? Because if you lean across a table you are more likely to knock something else over, and you will also be in somebody else s way! Do not pick objects up. Why? Because the objects are fragile and some are also heavy. If you don t pick them up, you can t drop them! Look carefully at the objects and make the most of this fantastic opportunity! Why? Not everybody gets to do this! This may be the closest you will ever get to some of these creatures so take the time to study them carefully! ALWAYS wash your hands after handling objects

6 The following words will be used throughout the session, and it is therefore recommended that the class is familiar with them. Adaptation An adaptation is a structural (physical) or functional (behavioural) alteration of an organism by natural selection that helps it to survive in its environment. Biodiversity The variety / abundance of living things and the places they live. Ecosystem A group of animals and plants and the ways in which they interact with each other and their environment. Environment The conditions (physical, chemical, and biological) of the region in which an organism lives. Habitat The local environment where a species lives, providing food, water, shelter and space. Organism A living thing. Common characteristics of many organisms include: movement, feeding, respiration, growth, reproduction and sensitivity to stimuli. Organisms may vary in shape, size, colour, mobility, habitat, food, and behaviour. Predator An animal that hunts another animal (the prey) for food. Prey An animal that is hunted by another animal (the predator) for food. Species A group of similar individuals capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring. Taxidermy The art of mounting the skins of animals so that they have lifelike appearance. Taxonomy The science of classifying and grouping organisms.

7 You may find it useful to explore some of the tasks that are available on the Museum of Mystery which can be used on an interactive whiteboard and completed as a class. The Museum of Mystery is a new interactive web resource aimed at students aged It has been created by the Manchester Museum and iflourish and the content complements the Museum's new Living Worlds gallery. The activities support many aspects of the science national curriculum for Key Stages 2 4 and they encourage students to broaden their awareness and interest in the natural world. The following two mysteries will provide useful prior knowledge for the session Why do animals and plants need each other? In this mystery, the following tasks are particularly relevant to the session 4. Predator or prey? Grouping the features of predators and prey 5. Features of predators and prey. Grouping predators and prey The numbers of animals and plants are changing. Can you find out why? In this mystery, the following tasks are particularly relevant to the session 1. What am I? Grouping organisms 2. Where do I live? Matching animals to habitats 3. Why do animals live in certain places? Matching adaptations to habitats 4. How does Nanook live in such a cold place? Arctic adaptations 5. Some like it hot! Desert adaptations 6. A diverse habitat rainforest. Rainforest adaptations 7. A changing habitat. Changing arctic habitat Useful websites: The Museum of Mystery: The Living World s Gallery:

8 It is useful if pupils are familiar with some of the more common groups of living things, as outlined in grouping life on earth ; depending on the age, ability and prior knowledge of your class, you may find it useful to introduce this topic using the ideas and resources provided in sort it out!!! 1. Online lesson plans There are numerous resources online that may be used to approach classification and sorting, ranging from the classification of art materials (class i fy) to mittens (magic mittens). Mitten Magic: Sorting mittens: Class i fy: Sorting art materials: Having carried out a sorting activity using everyday items, you may want to clarify the following Classification is the process of sorting and grouping things according to criteria. The members of a group should have more characteristics in common with each other than with those in another group. There are many different ways / criteria that could be used to sort and classify any given group of things. The criteria that are used to classify things should relate to the purpose of the classification system. In our everyday lives, we are constantly sorting and classifying things or using the classification systems of others. Classification is a useful way of organising things; things are easier to find and use if they have been classified using known criteria. 2. Introducing scientific classification In order to introduce the classification of living things, you may wish to explain the following: The problem The variety of life on our planet is mind blowing! More than a million species of living organisms have so far been discovered and described, and many more are yet to be discovered. These organisms vary greatly in many ways, such as shape, size, structure, mode of life. The solution Scientists divide up living organisms into groups Each group shares common features, such as internal structure, external form or behaviour Scientists also use a standard set of names for different groups. This means that they can talk about a group of living things without having to describe all of the features that are shared by members of that group By classifying, grouping and naming organisms in this way, scientist are able to organise knowledge about the living world

9 It is useful if pupils are familiar with the following groups of living animals: Ideally, pupils should be aware of: Amphibians Birds Fish Insects Mammals Reptiles The name of each group Key features that are used to define each group Examples of organisms belonging to each group These are just some of the many different ways of approaching this topic: 1. Online resources and lesson plans BBC Schools Variation Lesson Plan: Guidance and links to resources covering the topic of variation and classification: Exploring Nature s Classification lesson and activity plan: Introducing classification using a dichotomous key: 2. Sorting with pictures Print images of a selection of creatures from each group (see below). Firstly, ask pupils to group the images according to their own criteria. Then provide pupils with the six group names and ask them to try to arrange the images into these groups. Ask pupils to identify common features shared by the creatures in each group (this may be used as a starting point for research task below). Amphibians: Frog, newt, salamander, toad Birds: Chicken, eagle, ostrich, penguin Fish: Clownfish, flounder, pike, seahorse Insects: Ant, beetle, butterfly, fly Mammals: Elephant, human, tiger, whale Reptiles: Crocodile, lizard, snake, turtle 3. Research task Images of the creatures listed here can be found on the following website using the search tool: z animals.com/animals/ You may want to add more examples of each group or select an entirely different set of examples! Ask pupils to investigate the six groups of animals listed above using reference books or the online resources (below). In particular, they should focus on the key defining features and examples of organisms for each group. Having carried out their research, pupils may want to test their knowledge using the Touch of Class interactive game listed below. Useful websites: Learning Zone s Tree of Life: BBC Nature s Animal Kingdom: A Touch of Class Interactive game:

10 4 During the session the class will be focussing on tropical rainforests, and it may therefore be useful to introduce some of their key features prior to your visit using the ideas below: 1. Researching Tropical Rainforests Ask pupils to carry out some basic research about tropical rainforests using either reference books or online sources such as those listed below. You may wish to ask pupils to answer the following questions: Where are they found? What is the climate like? What plants and animals live there? What threats are there? Useful websites: Rainforest Alliance: alliance.org/kids/facts Wild World: world/ecosystems/info books/tropical forests/index.htm Learning about Rainforests: 2. Comparing Rainforests Ask pupils to carry out research (as above) on two different types of rainforest using either reference books or online sources (see below). Pupils must and identify similarities and differences which they could present using a Venn diagram. Pupils may wish to compare tropical and temperate rainforests, or rainforests in two different locations, such as South America, Africa, Asia, Madagascar. Useful websites (also see those listed above) MNG Net: World Builders: bulders.org/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/rainintro.html 3. Layers of the Rainforest Explain that it is useful to think of rainforests as forming four different habitat layers. Ask groups of students to carry out research on each of the following layers: forest floor, understory, canopy, and emergent layer. Pupils should try to answer the following questions using either reference books or websites (such as those listed below): How high up is the layer? What is it like in that layer? What plants and animals live there? Useful websites: Layers of life interactive: Strata:

11 During the session the class will design a creature with adaptations to life in the rainforest. It is therefore useful if pupils are familiar with some of the different forms of life that are found in rainforests. In order to help pupils to design their own creature during the session, you may wish to introduce the class to the ways in which organisms are adapted to life in the rainforest. 1. Creating Fact Cards Allocate each pupil one of the creatures from the list provided on page 12 (also note that a summary of adaptations is provided on page 13) ensuring that you include creatures from a range of different layers. Using either reference books or the websites listed below and on page 15, ask pupils to carry out research on their creature. Pupils should try to find out the following information in order to create a fact card for their animal: Name (the common name of the creature) Range (where in the world the creature lives) Size (height / weight if available) Rainforest habitat (the layer of the rainforest in which it lives) Diet (what the creature eats) Predators (what eats the creature) Adaptations (physical features or behaviours that help the creature to survive: How does it move? How does it feed? How does it avoid being eaten? Does it live alone or in groups? How does it communicate?) Image / drawing of the creature Useful Websites ARKive: Exploring Nature: National Geographic: animals.nationalgeographic.co.uk/animals Rainforest Alliance: alliance.org/kids/species profiles A to Z of animals: z animals.com/animals/ 2. Using Fact Cards There are various ways of using the fact cards; for example, you may wish to make a display by arranging them according to the layer of the rainforest in which they live. Alternatively, you may want to investigate questions such as Why are some creatures brightly coloured? What are the benefits of being camouflaged for predators / prey? How are creatures adapted to moving in the rainforest? Is this the same for all layers? How do creatures communicate with each other? Does this vary according to each layer?

12 Emergent Layer Canopy Under story Forest Floor Name Note: While there are various online sources of information, the sources listed (right) are particularly accessible. Sites can be accessed either directly via the links (right) or using the address provided on the Useful Websites page. BBC National Geographic Rainforest Alliance ARKive Exploring Nature A to Z of Animals Enchanted Learning Harpy Eagle King Vulture Blue Morpho Butterfly Colugo (Mayan) Macaw (Scarlet) Spider Monkey (Black / Black handed) Toucan (Toco / Keel Billed) Aye Aye Eyelash Viper Flying / Paradise Tree Snake Gibbon (White Handed) Hornbill (Rhinoceros / Great) Howler Monkey (Mantled / Black / Red) Orang utan (Sumatran / Bornean) Ruby Throated Hummingbird Saki (Bearded) Flying Dragon Praying Mantis (Orchid) Three Toed Sloth (Maned / Pale Throated) Tree frog (Red Eyed) Kinkajou Potto (Golden) Jaguar Ocelot Agouti (Central American) Army Ant Cassowary (Southern) Flat Tailed Gecko Giant Anteater Peccary (collared) Poison Dart / Dyeing Poison Frog Tapir (Baird s / Brazilian)

13 Emergent Layer Canopy Under story Forest Floor Name Feeding Movement Senses Colouration Communication Behaviour Harpy Eagle Sloths, monkeys Fly Vision, hearing Camouflage Sound Solitary King Vulture Carrion: Scavenger Fly Vision Camouflage Solitary Blue Morpho Butterfly Leaves, fruit Fly Taste, smell Startle, camouflage Social Colugo (Mayan) Leaves, fruit Glide, grip, climb Nocturnal Macaw (Scarlet) Hard fruit, nuts Fly, climb, perch Camouflage Sound Social Spider Monkey (Black / Black handed) Fruit, nuts, seeds Run, swing, climb, hang Camouflage Sound Social Toucan (Toco / Keel Billed) Fruit, insects Fly Camouflage Sound Social Aye Aye Insects, fruit, seeds Grip Hearing Scent, sound Nocturnal, solitary Eyelash Viper Lizards, frogs, small mammals Slither, grip Vision Camouflage Venomous Flying / Paradise Tree Snake Small mammals, frogs, birds Glide, slither Venomous Gibbon (White Handed) Fruit, leaves, insects Swing, hang, walk Sound, visual, tactile Social Hornbill (Rhinoceros / Great) Fruit Fly, perch Sound Howler Monkey (Mantled / Black / Red) Leaves, fruit Grip, hang, walk, climb Camouflage Sound Social Orang utan (Sumatran / Bornean) Fruit, leaves, seeds Swing, walk Sound Solitary Ruby Throated Hummingbird Nectar, insects Hover, fly Mating Sound Solitary, migration Saki (Bearded) Seeds, spiders, insects Leap Camouflage Social Flying Dragon Insects Glide, climb Camouflage Praying Mantis (Orchid) Insects, spiders: ambush or stalk Vision, hearing Mimicry Three Toed Sloth (Maned / Pale Throated) Leaves Hang, grip, climb, swim Vision Camouflage Scent. sound Live alone Tree frog (Red Eyed) Insects: ambush Climb, grip, jump Startle, camouflage Solitary Kinkajou Insects, fruit Run, grip Camouflage Sound Nocturnal, Social Potto (Golden) Insects, fruit Grip, climb Vision Camouflage Scent Nocturnal, solitary Jaguar Animals: ambush or stalk Climb, pounce, walk Vision Camouflage Solitary Ocelot Small mammals, birds, fish Climb, swim Vision, hearing Camouflage Nocturnal, Solitary Agouti (Central American) Fruit, seeds Run Vision, hearing Camouflage Scent, sound Army Ant Insects: pack / swarm hunter Walk Chemical, tactile Social, venomous Cassowary (Southern) Fruit, leaves, insects Run Kicks, solitary, flightless Flat Tailed Gecko Insects Climb Camouflage, startle Sound Nocturnal, tail shedding Giant Anteater Insects Smell Camouflage Solitary Peccary (collared) Roots, tubers, fruit Run Smell, hearing Camouflage Scent, sound Social Poison Dart / Dyeing Poison Frog Ants, termites, beetles Jump Warning Poisonous Tapir (Baird s / Brazilian) Grass, leaves, fruit Run, swim Hearing, smell Camouflage Sound, scent Nocturnal, solitary

14 Having completed the session, you may want to use the creatures that were designed in order to explore the impacts of environmental change. 1. Deforestation Arrange the class into the same groups as they worked in at the museum. Explain that the rainforest, in which their creature lived, has been destroyed as a result of deforestation. Explain that as a result of deforestation, the habitat has changed in the following ways: most of the trees have been cut down the ground is almost entirely bare there is no shelter from the wind, rain or sun there is nothing to hold the soil together or to stop it from washing / blowing away there is no food for plant eaters to feed on there are no plant eaters for predators to feed on Ask pupils to discuss the following two questions: What problems would any creature living in a deforested area have to overcome? What would happen to your creature as a result of these changes? Useful Websites Mongabay deforestation images: travel.mongabay.com/deforestation.html National Geographic: environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/rainforest deforestation/ Raintree images: 2. Adapting to change You may want to photocopy each group s creature and distribute copies to each group member. Ask pupils to make some changes to their creature so that it would be able to survive in a deforested habitat. 3. Design a new creature Ask pupils to start from scratch and to design a brand new creature that would be able to survive in a deforested habitat.

15 In addition to those websites listed above, the following may also be of interest: National Geographic s Rainforest at Night: Virtual rainforest at night with sounds and information about wildlife BBC Nature: Rainforests information, videos, and sounds Rainforest Foundation: Kids information about rainforest animals, people, threats etc. Animal Corner: Basic rainforest information, description of different layers and information about animals PBS Journey into Amazonia: Various resources about the Amazon including video clips, information, lesson plans, links and interactive games

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