Data Modeling Part 1. CS 122: Database Systems Second Semester,

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1 Data Modeling Part 1 CS 122: Database Systems Second Semester,

2 Objectives Define key terms Write good names and definitions for entities, relationships, and attributes Identify relationship types Draw ERDs for business situations

3 Introduction In designing databases, we begin by examining business rules that tell us what is/are important to an organization A conceptual data model is created to capture the overall structure of entities and the relationships among them

4 Business Rules Statements that define or constrain some aspect of the business Assert business structure Control or influence business behavior Expressed in terms that are familiar to end users Automated through DBMS software

5 Good Business Rules Declarative what, not how Precise clear, agreed-upon meanings Atomic one statement only Consistent internally and externally Expressible structured, natural language Distinct non-redundant Business-oriented understood by business people

6 Data Names Related to the business or organization, not technical, characteristics Meaningful and self-documenting Unique Readable Composed of words from an approved list Repeatable

7 Data Definitions Explanation of a term or fact Term : word or phrase with specific meaning Fact : association between two or more terms

8 Guidelines Data Definitions Gathered in conjunction with systems requirements Accompanied by diagrams Iteratively created and refined Achieved by consensus

9 Conceptual Data Model A graphical model showing the Characteristics of the entities Relationships among the entities Independent of How the database will be physically stored The data model used to implement the database The type of DBMS to be used

10 Entity-Relationship Diagram The ERD is the most commonly used conceptual model Consists of Entities Relationships among entities Attributes of entities and relationships

11 Entity A person, place, object, event, or concept which an organization wishes to maintain data about Represented by a rectangle STUDENT SUBJECT TEACHER

12 Entity: Type vs. Instance Entity Type A collection of all occurrences of a given type of entity a.k.a. an entity class Entity Instance A single occurrence of an entity type An entity type can have many instances

13 An entity should be An object that will have many instances in the database An object that will be composed of multiple attributes An object that we are trying to model

14 An entity should NOT be A user of the database system An output of the database system (e.g. a report)

15 Attributes A property or characteristic of an entity or relationship type Classifications Required vs. Optional Simple vs. Composite Single-Valued vs. Multi-Valued Stored vs. Derived Identifiers

16 Composite Attributes Attributes broken into component parts Parts are enclosed in (parentheses) STUDENT Home_Address (Street, City, State, Country)

17 Multi-Valued Attributes Attributes having more than one value for each entity instance Enclosed in {curly braces} STUDENT {Hobby}

18 Derived Attributes Attributes whose values can be calculated from other attribute values Enclosed in [square brackets] STUDENT Derived from current date and Birth_Date Birth_Date [Age]

19 Identifiers (a.k.a. Keys) An identifier / key is an attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies individual instances of an entity type a.k.a. Primary Key A Candidate Key / Identifier is an attribute that could be a key, i.e. it satisfies the requirements for being an identifier

20 Characteristics of Identifiers Unique no two entity instances can have the same value for the identifier Not null Will not change in value No "intelligent" identifiers (e.g. using locations or people that might change) Substitute new, simple keys for long, composite keys

21 Time-Stamping Time-stamping usually leads to an attribute that is both multi-valued and composite PRODUCT Product_ID {Price_History (Effective_Date, Price)}...

22 Attribute Values The value of the type of characteristic that an attribute represents Example: Attribute: Name Values: Abby, Jethro, Donald The ERD contains only the attribute type and not its values

23 Relationships A natural association (or link) between the instances of one or more entities Represented by a line that connects entities STUDENT enrolls_in SUBJECT

24 More on Relationships Types vs. Instances The relationship type is modeled as a line between entity types. The relationship instance is between specific entity instances.

25 Types vs. Instances

26 Degree of a Relationship The number of entity types that participate in the relationship Most common types Unary Relationship Binary Relationship Ternary Relationship

27 Unary Relationship A recursive relationship within a single entity Exists within an entity to link related instances of that entity together

28 Binary Relationship An association between two entity types Most common relationship

29 Ternary Relationship An association among three entity types

30 Cardinality of a Relationship One-to-One Each entity in the relationship will have exactly one related entity One-to-Many An entity on one side of the relationship can have many related entities, but an entity on the other side will have a maximum of one related entity Many-to-many Entities on both sides of the relationship can have many related entities on the other side

31 Unary Relationship Examples

32 Binary Relationship Examples

33 Ternary Relationship Example

34 Optional vs. Mandatory Optional Relationship An instance of one entity may not be associated with an instance of the related entity Mandatory Relationship Every instance in one entity type must be associated with at least one instance in the related entity

35 Cardinality Constraints The number of instances of one entity that can or must be associated with each instance of another entity Minimum Cardinality If zero, optional relationship If one or more, mandatory relationship Maximum Cardinality The maximum number of instances that can be involved in the relationship

36 Representing Cardinality

37 Mandatory Cardinalities

38 One Optional, One Mandatory

39 Optional Cardinalities

40 Sample ERD

41 Inappropriate Diagrams

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