2 Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation and coordination that produce coherency and result in harmonious function.
3 Integration Cellular integration = processes within cells Whole-animal integration = selective combination and processing of sensory, endocrine, and central nervous system (CNS) information in ways that promote harmonious functioning of the whole organism within its environment. This includes its all its cells, tissues, and organs
4 Integration Nerve cells are specialized for control and coordination. Integration ensures that an animal s responses are smooth and coordinated rather than clashing or disjointed.
5 Excitable Cells Neurons are a type of excitable cell Specially adapted to generate an electrical signal Can rapidly alter their membrane potential in response to an incoming signal. Vary in structure and function but use the same basic mechanism to send signals.
6 Neuron Function Main Points Specialized for processing and conveying information. Information is coded into changes in electrical potential across cell membranes. Neurons use action potentials to transmit these signals across long distances. Neurons allow animals to sense and respond to their environment.
7 Benefits of Neurons Plants (no neurons): Action potentials 1-3 cm/sec Animals (neurons): Action potentials 100m/sec or 10,000cm/sec
9 CNS to Muscles Signal Reception Dendrites & Cell Body Signal Integration Axon Hillock Signal Conduction Axon Signal Transmission Axon Terminals
11 Signal Reception Dendrites sense and convert incoming signals into electrical signals by changing membrane potential. Cell Body = routine metabolic functions
12 Signal Integration Incoming signals are conducted to the axon hillock If signal is sufficiently large an electrical signal, or action potential, is initiated.
13 Signal Conduction Axon: One per neuron. Vary in length. Wrapped in myelin sheath that aids in the conduction of nerve impulses.
14 Signal Transmission Axon terminals form synapses with target skeletal muscle cells. Electrical signal results in the release of chemical neurotransmitters.
15 Motor Neuron Overall Process 1. Receive incoming signal 2. Convert to change in membrane potential 3. Trigger action potentials that conduct signals across long distances 4. Transmit signals to target cells in the form of a neurotransmitter
16 Electrical Signals in Neurons Average resting membrane potential is approximately -70mV. Depolarization = the charge difference between the inside & outside of the cell membrane decreases. Hyper-polarization = membrane potential becomes more negative. Repolarization = cell membrane potential goes back to resting levels.
18 Membrane Potential 3 factors contribute to membrane potential: Distribution of ions across the membrane Permeability of the membrane to these ions The charge of the ions
19 Membrane Potential Neurons selectively alter permeability of their membranes to ions (ex. Na + & K + ). Opening and close gated ion channels. Na + influx K + efflux
20 Ligand Gated Ion Channels Open and close in response to a stimulus, such as the binding of a neurotransmitter. LIGAND GATED ION CHANNEL
21 Membrane Potential Changes in permeability alters membrane potential and generates electrical signals. Opening Na + channels results in depolarization Opening K + channels results in hyperpolarization
22 Electrochemical Driving Force
23 Electrochemical Driving Force
24 Electrochemical Driving Force Equilibrium point = membrane potential at which electrical and chemical gradients favoring movement of an ion exactly balance each other. no NET movement across membrane. Therefore, at equilibrium, there is no electrochemical driving force.
25 Signals in Dendrites & Cell Body
26 Signals in Dendrites & Cell Body Incoming Signal = Neurotransmitter Binds to membrane bound receptor = Ligand Gated Ion Channel Changes in permeability alter membrane potential.
27 Signals in Dendrites & Cell Body In the dendrites and cell bodies of neurons electrical signals are called graded potentials Graded potentials vary in magnitude depending on the strength of the stimulus
28 No Neurotransmitter
29 Low [Neurotransmitter]
30 High [Neurotransmitter]
31 Depolarization v. Hyperpolarization Most important ion channels in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron are: Na +, K +, Cl -, and Ca 2+ Open Na + or Ca 2+ = depolarization Open K + or Cl - = hyperpolarization
32 Graded Potential
33 Graded Potentials Short distance signals due to: leakage of charged ions electrical resistance of the cytoplasm Cannot travel long distances without dying away.
34 Signals at the Axon Hillock Trigger Zone
35 Signals at the Axon Hillock Action potentials are triggered by the NET graded potential at the membrane of the axon hillock. Action potentials are fired when the net graded potential is beyond the threshold potential.
36 Signals at the Axon Hillock The net graded potential at the axon hillock membrane can be a: Subthreshold Potential Suprathreshold Potential
37 Subthreshold Potential
38 Suprathreshold Potential
39 Signals at the Axon Hillock Excitatory potential = Depolarizing graded potential Brings the membrane potential closer to threshold potential Inhibitory potential = Hyperpolarizing graded potential Moves membrane potential farther away from threshold potential.
40 Multiple Graded Potentials Neurons can generate many graded potentials at once Spatial summation: Sum of multiple potentials Temporal summation: Potentials may build on each other as long as they are not too far apart in time.
41 Spatial Summation
42 Temporal Summation
43 Temporal Summation
44 Signals in the Axon AP is triggered when membrane potential at the axon hillock reaches its threshold. Action Potentials have 3 phases: Depolarization reaches +30 mv Repolarization returns to -70mV After-hyperpolarization overshoots
45 3 Main Phases of Action Potentials
46 Voltage Gated Ion Channels Changes in membrane potential cause structural changes in voltage gated channels, resulting in changes in permeability. VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNEL
47 Voltage Gated Na + Channels Voltage Gated Na + Channels have 2 gates: Activation gate Inactivation gate
49 Refractory Periods Absolute refractory period = axon is incapable of regenerating a new action potential no matter how strong the stimulus Relative refractory period = new action potential can be generated, but only by a very large stimulus
51 Refractory Periods Due to the opening and closing of voltage gated ion channels Opening Na + channels = depolarization Opening K + channels = repolarization
52 Refractory Periods
53 Refractory Periods Opening Na + Channels Positive feedback loop of Na + entry results in extremely rapid changes in Na + permeability Before reaching Na + equilibrium (+60mV), Na + channels close, terminating depolarization
54 Refractory Periods Opening K + channels: open more slowly only open in substantial numbers just before Na + channels close. K + moves out of the cell, cell becomes more negative, and causes repolarization. K + channels close slow, explaining why there is the after-hyperpolarization phase.
57 Traveling Along the Axon
58 All-or-None Axons conduct action potentials unidirectionally. Travel along axon in an All-or-None fashion. Reach threshold potential and fire, or don t.
59 Traveling Along the Axon Action potentials in one part of the axon trigger action potentials in adjacent areas of axonal membrane. Dominoes. Therefore, action potentials are conducted across long distances without decaying.
62 Myelinated Axons Vertebrate motor nerves are myelinated: Wrapped in an insulating layer of myelin Schwann cells = specialized lipid-rich cells that form a myelin sheath by wrapping in a spiral pattern around a single axon.
63 Myelinated Axons Several Schwann cells may wrap long axons. Myelinated regions = internodes. Nodes of Ranvier = exposed sections of axonal membrane in between internodes. contain high densities of voltage-gated ion channels.
65 Saltatory Conduction Action potentials only occur in nodes of Ranvier. Current spreads electrically through internodes
66 Saltatory Conduction Action potentials appear to jump from one node to another along the axon. Conduction occurs faster and with less degradation along myelinated axons than along unmyelinated axons.
67 Saltatory Conduction
68 Unidirectional Conduction If you electrically stimulate an axon halfway along it s length, APs will be generated in both directions. Why do action potentials only occur in the downstream direction?
69 Unidirectional Conduction In a natural action potential, the stimulus is initiated at the axon hillock. As the action potential travels along the axon, the region just upstream has just produced an action potential. Voltage gated Na + channels there are in a conformation unable to open in response to changes in membrane potential.
70 Unidirectional Conduction Voltage gated channel (A): corresponds to the absolute refractory period.
71 Unidirectional Conduction Together, absolute refractory periods and relative refractory periods prevent retrograde (backwards) transmission of action potentials.
72 Action Potential Frequency Action potentials carry information about the strength of a graded potential by changing frequency rather than amplitude. Remember all-or-none
73 Action Potential Frequency
74 Action Potential Frequency
75 Signals Across the Synapse
76 Signals Across the Synapse Synapse is made up of 3 parts: Presynaptic cell cell that transmits the signal Postsynaptic cell cell that receives the signal Synaptic cleft space in between
77 Types of Synapses Neurons can form synapses with many types of cells including: Neurons Muscles Endocrine cells Neuromuscular junction = Synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cell.
78 Neuromuscular Junction Neurotransmitter release is regulated by intracellular Ca 2+ levels.
79 FIGURE 4.16
80 Synaptic Vesicles 2 pools of synaptic vesicles: Ready Releasable Pool Located at active zone of synapse Bound to docking proteins Ready to release contents by exocytosis Storage Pool Bound to cytoskeleton Not docked to membrane
81 Synaptic Vesicles Increases in Ca 2+ concentration in the axon terminal act as a signal to neurotransmitting synaptic vesicles: Vesicles from readily releasable pool fuse with plasma membrane and release contents by exocytosis Vesicles from storage pool move to active zone and bind to docking proteins.
82 Vesicles & Neurotransmitters Many neurotransmitters in one vesicle The number of neurotransmitters per vesicle is similar for all vesicles. Increasing action potentials increases the number of vesicles moving to the membrane and releasing their contents.
83 Vesicles & Neurotransmitters When action potentials arrive at high frequencies, cellular removal of Ca 2+ cannot keep up with the influx of Ca 2+ through activation channels. Resulting in: intracellular [Ca 2+ ] Results in a stronger signal for exocytosis.
84 Vesicles & Neurotransmitters: Take Home Process Frequency Action Potentials Intracellular [Ca 2+ ] Signal Intensity Neurotransmitter Release
85 Acetylcholine (ACh) Primary neurotransmitter at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. ACh is packaged into synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse by exocytosis
86 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Signalling between a ligand, such as a neruotransmitter, and its receptor must be terminated in order to be effective. AChE = specific enzyme in synapse that removes Ach from it s receptor. Breaks Ach down
87 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Important role in regulating the strength of the signal to the post synaptic cell by regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse.
88 Recycling of Acetylcholine (ACh)
89 Postsynaptic Reception Postsynaptic cells detect neurotransmitters using specific cell-surface receptors. Nicotinic Ach receptors = ligand gated ion channels in muscle cells.
90 Postsynaptic Reception Nicotinic ACh receptors contain a relatively non-selective channel. Permeable to Na +, K +, and to a lesser extent Ca 2+ Resulting graded potential in postsynaptic cells is dominated by Na + ions.
91 Postsynaptic Reception ACh binding to nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscle always results in a rapid excitatory postsynaptic potential because of the resulting influx of Na + depolarization of the muscle cell.
92 Postsynaptic Reception The amount of neurotransmitter and the number of receptors on the post synaptic cell influence the strength of signal in the target cell.
93 Postsynaptic Reception [Neurotransmitter] in the synapse = balance of release (presynaptic) and removal (postsynaptic) Removal can depend on : (1) diffusion (2) surrounding cells (3) enzymes present in the synapse (ex. Acetylcholinesterase)
94 Outline of Postsynaptic Reception 1. Neurotransmitter (Ach) binds to receptor (Nicotinic receptors). 2. Receptor changes shape, acting as a signal in the target cell. 3. A pore opens in the middle of the receptor allowing ions to cross the membrane. 4. Rapid influx Na + influx depolarizes the postsynaptic muscle cell. (contraction)
Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes
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