The Nervous System CH 28

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1 The Nervous System CH 28

2 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain

3

4 Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+

5 The Giant Squid Nervous System Nervous system- coordinates an appropriate response to internal and external stimuli Squid - coordinates, balance, eyesight, movement, feeding, predator defense, color change Large brain and sensory nerves Large cells with thick, giant fibers Easily manipulated and used for nervous system research

6 Fig 28.1

7

8 Structure and Function Sensory input Conduction of signals from sensory receptors Recall the eye, ear, tongue, etc Intergration Interpretation of signals and formation of a response Motor output Conduction of signals from integration center to effector cells i.e. muscle cells

9 Structure and Function Divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Carries information from sensory receptors to CNS and motor information to effector cells

10 Structure and Function Neuron - the functional unit of the nervous system Nerves are made of bundles of neurons Sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons Clusters of neurons CNS - nuclei; PNS - ganglia Reflex, see fig 21.8B

11 Fig 28.2

12 Cell body nucleus and organelles Dendrites Neurons Numerous short projections that convey signals to the cell body Axons Long and convey signals away from the cell body Synaptic knob Relays signal to effector cell Supporting cells (six types) MS Glial cells/schwann cells Myelin sheaths (fast conduction of nerve impulses 150 m/s) Nodes of ranvier

13 Fig 28.3

14 Resting potential QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.

15 Fig 28.3

16 Transmission of nerve signals Neurons contain potential energy ( battery) Excitable cells! Charge across membrane, -70 mv, neg on inside positive on the outside This is called resting potential Determined by Large organic molecules, K and Na Na/K pump

17 Action Potential QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.

18 Fig 28.4

19 Nerve signal Begins as a local change in membrane potential The change results from some type of stimulus The change in membrane potential spread as and action potential Stages Rp resting phase (-70 mv) Rising phase ( -70 to +35) Na rushes into the cell: (Threshold) Falling phase (+35 to -70) K diffuses out Undershoot; K channels close Depolarization - membrane charge becomes more positive Hyperpolarization - membrane charge becomes more negative

20 Blue - Na channels open Green - Na closed, K open Gray- No AP ( NA/K pump) Fig 28.5

21 Regeneration of AP s Spread of charge along the axon is caused by Na influx Na influx triggers more Na influx further on down the axon Changes are unidirectional, K moving out blocks the AP in the reverse direction All or none- Ap s don t change in magnitude, but do change in frequency

22 Synapse QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.

23 Fig 28.6

24 Information processing: Chemical synapses Synapse - relay between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell Electrical or chemical Electrical signals are converted to chemical signals here, neurotransmitters transmit chemical information across the synapse - space prevents electrical signals from spreading Synaptic knobs - store NT s in vesicles; Ca influx triggers the release

25 Fig 28.7

26 Information processing Neurotransmitters open ion channels on the receiving cell s membrane NT s Excitatory open Na channels and start a new Ap Inhibitory open Cl channels and decrease tendency of cell to start an AP Cells receive multiple inputs! They are integrated!

27 Neurotransmitters Excitatory of inhibitory - depending on the receptor on the receiving cell Small N containing molecules, Acetylcholine Some come from amino acids: Epinepherine, norepinepherine, - change heart rate serotonin, dopamine- sleep., mood, attention, learning Stimulants and depressants affect chemical synapses Cocaine, amphetamines, caffiene Valium, Librium, alcohol Serotinin reuptake inhibitors, Prozac, Zoloft

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