Essay Question for exam 3

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1 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling the action potential tracing (shown below) and describing what is occurring at that particular time. The answer to this question can be found early in Chapt. 11 Points to include. Certainly may include more: Presynaptic axon: Action potential Axon terminal Ca++ influx via VGCa++ channels Vesicles ACh Synaptic Cleft Postsynaptic Dendrite: ACh receptors Acetylcholinesterase Na/K channels Threshold potential Graded potential VGNa Channel Action Potential Unmyelinated Action Potential Cell Body Axon Hillock Action Potential and myelination (Saltatory conduction vs. conduction along unmyelinated sheath) Axon terminal Ca++ influx

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3 Ohm s Law: V = I x R Know the neurotransmitters Structural features of a neuron Saltatory conduction Na/K pump

4 Neural support cells

5 Neuron Classification structure: uni, bi, multi

6 Neuron Classification function: Sensory (afferent): transmit impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs toward or into the CNS All are unipolar Cell bodies are located in sensory ganglia outside of the CNS Only most distal parts act as receptor sites, with long peripheral processes (e.g. again, the great toe) Motor (efferent): carry impulses away from the CNS to the effector organs (e.g. muscles, glands) Multipolar Cell bodies are located in the CNS Interneurons (association neurons): lie between sensory & motor neurons in neural pathways Confined to the CNS 99% of neurons in the body multipolar

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8 Types of plasma membrane ion PLAY InterActive Physiology : Nervous System I: Ion Channels channels: Passive, or leakage, channels always open but selective to the ion they let in Chemically gated/ligand gated channels open with binding of a specific chemical (neurotransmitter) Voltage-gated channels open and close in response to changes in membrane potential Mechanically gated channels open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors (e.g. touch or pressure receptors)

9 Membrane potentials: what are they and where do they come from Graded potentials Action potentials

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11 Propagation of an Action Potential (Time = 0ms) Figure 11.13a

12 Propagation of an Action Potential (Time = 2ms) Ions of the extracellular fluid move toward the area of greatest negative charge A current is created that depolarizes the adjacent membrane in a forward direction The impulse propagates away from its point of origin

13 Propagation of an Action Potential (Time = 2ms) Figure 11.13b

14 Propagation of an Action Potential (Time = 4ms) The action potential moves away from the stimulus Where sodium gates are closing, potassium gates are open and create a current flow

15 Propagation of an Action Potential (Time = 4ms) Figure 11.13c

16 Threshold and Action Potentials Threshold membrane is depolarized by 15 to 20 mv Established by the total amount of current flowing through the membrane Weak (subthreshold) stimuli are not relayed into action potentials Strong (threshold) stimuli are relayed into action potentials All-or-none phenomenon action potentials either happen completely, or not at all

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18 Brain structure Brain ventricles Structures of cerebral hemispheres Grey cortex, white matter, basal nuclei Lobes of the brain

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20 Primary (somatic) motor cortex Premotor cortex Broca s area Frontal eye field

21 Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Visual and auditory areas Olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular cortices

22 Location/function/etc. Cerebral White Matter Basal Nuclei Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Cerebellum Brainstem Consists of three regions midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

23 Brainwaves Sleep Memory

24 Protection of the brain bone, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier

25 Spinal cord Anatomy Gray & white matter and spinal roots Ascending pathways: specific and nonspecific Descending pathways: direct and indirect

26 PNS Receptor Classification by Stimulus Type Receptor Class by Location Receptor Classification by Structural Complexity

27 Organization of the Somatosensory System: receptor level, circuit level, perceptual level

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29 Classification of nerves Sensory and motor divisions Sensory (afferent) carry impulse to the CNS Motor (efferent) carry impulses from CNS Mixed sensory and motor fibers carry impulses to and from CNS; most common type of nerve Ganglia: a collection of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the PNS

30 Regeneration of nerves The cranial nerves The spinal nerves

31 Spinal Nerves: Roots Ventral roots: motor (efferent) fibers Dorsal roots: sensory (afferent) fibers They unite to form a spinal nerve before emerging from the vertebral column via a intervertebral foramina After emerging, from foramina, spinal nerve divides into small dorsal, ventral rami and menigeal branch (that re enters the vertebral column

32 Innervation of Specific Body Regions Rami and plexuses Skin (dermatomes) Innervation of Visceral Muscle and Glands

33 Hierarchy of motor control

34 Reflexes

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38 ANS

39 ANS Versus Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

40 Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic

41 Parasympathetic Division Outflow Sympathetic Division Outflow

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45 Neurotransmitters and receptors Acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) are the two major neurotransmitters of the ANS ACh is released by: 1) All preganglionic axons 2) All parasympathetic postganglionic axons Cholinergic fibers ACh-releasing fibers Adrenergic fibers sympathetic postganglionic axons that release NE Neurotransmitter effects can be excitatory or inhibitory depending upon the receptor type

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