Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron"

Transcription

1 Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Basic parts of neuron (nerve cell) Cell body Dendrites Axon Axon hillock Axon terminals Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock, and conducted throughout a nerve fiber Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Cell body Houses the nucleus and organelles Dendrites Project from cell body and increase surface area available for receiving signals from other nerve cells Signal toward the cell body Dendrite and cell body serve as the neurons input zone

2 Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Axon Nerve fiber Single, elongated tubular extension that conducts action potentials away from the cell body Conducting zone of the neuron Collaterals Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Axon hillock First portion of the axon plus the region of the cell body from which the axon leaves Neuron s trigger zone Axon terminals Release chemical messengers that simultaneously influence other cells with which they come into close association Output zone of the neuron

3 Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Dendrites Nucleus Dendrites 1 Input zone receives incoming signals from other neurons. Cell body 2 Trigger zone initiates action potentials. Axon hillock 3 Conducting zone conducts action potentials in undiminishing fashion, often over long distances. Axon (may be from 1mm to more than 1 m long) Dendrites Cell body Axon terminals 4 Output zone releases neurotransmitter that influences other cells. Axon Fig. 4-8, p. 79 Excitable Tissue Terminology Membrane electrical states (different than text) Polarization Any state when the membrane potential is other than 0mV Hyperpolarization Membrane becomes more polarized than its resting membrane potential (eg 70mv to 80mv) Hypopolarization Membrane becomes less polarized than its resting membrane potential (eg 70mv to 60mv) Depolarization Membrane rapidly approaches E Na+ (+60mV) in less than 1 msec after having first hypopolarized to its THRESHOLD POTENTIAL (voltage at which voltage regulated Na+ channel (gates) open) Repolarization Membrane rapidly approaches E K+ ( 90mV) in less than 2 msec (must occur after DEPOLARIZATION TO TAKE THIS LONG)

4 Membrane potential (mv) TEXT EXPLANATION Depolarization (decrease in potential; membrane less negative) Repolarization (return to resting potential after depolarization) Hyperpolarization (increase in potential; membrane more negative) Resting potential Time (msec) Fig. 4-1, p. 72 Membrane potential (mv) CORRECT EXPLANATION Hypopolarization (decrease in potential; membrane less negative) return to resting potential after hypopolarization) Time (msec) Hyperpolarization (increase in potential; membrane more negative) Resting potential return to resting potential after hyperpolarization) Fig. 4-1, p. 72

5 Depolarization rapid movement towards ENa+ after attainment of Threshold potential (point Where voltage regulated Na+ channels (gates) open 1 Depolarization Repolarization Repolarization rapid movement towards EK+ after depolarization 2 Fig. 4-4, p. 75 Introduction to Neural Communication Two kinds of potential (voltage) change Graded potentials Serve as short distance integrating signals Generated at dendrites due to opening of chemically regulated ion channels by incoming signaling molecules (neurotransmitters) that are ligands for the dendritic receptor proteins Graded (vary) in strength and duration Affect, by local current flow, the voltage at the axon hillock Effects of multiple graded potentials are summed at the hillock Action potentials Serve as long distance (electrical) communicating signals Originate at axon hillock and conducted along axon a because they initiate a postitve feedback cycle opens successively more ion gated channels ALL or NONE: if hillock reaches threshold, an action potential will result. All action potentials are the same magnitude (size and duration)

6 Closed channels Portion of an excitable cell (a) Entire membrane at resting potential Extracellular fluid Intracellular fluid Unbalanced charges distributed across the plasma membrane that are responsible for membrane potential Fig. 4-2a, p. 73 Chemical or mecanical messaging event opens ion channels, most commonly permitting slow net Na+ entry Inactive area at resting potential Active area hypopolarized Inactive area (a graded potential) at resting potential (b) Inward movement of Na+ hypopolarizes membrane, producing a graded potential Fig. 4-2b, p. 73

7 Current flows between the active and adjacent inactive areas Inactive area Previously Original Previously Inactive inactive area active area inactive area area being hypopolarized being hypopolarized Spread of current (c) local current flow to adjacent inactive areas alters membrane potential decrementally from from point of origin Fig. 4-2c, p. 73 Graded Potentials Occurs in small, specialized region of excitable cell membranes (receptor area or dendrite of neuron) Magnitude of graded potential varies directly with the magnitude of the triggering event Due to opening or closing of chemically regulated gates by chemical messengers from other neurons

8 Graded Potentials The stronger a triggering event is, the larger the resultant graded potential Graded potential spread by passive current flow Graded potentials show decrement over short distance Fig. 4-3a, p. 74

9 Fig. 4-3b, p. 74

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Graded Potentials Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Length constant ( ) is defined as the distance over which

More information

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl. The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for

More information

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1 page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always

More information

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No.

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No. 3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?

More information

Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology

Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology Resting potential, action potential and electrical excitibility. Measurement of membrane potential. Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and

More information

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS 5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.

More information

Neuron Function. How does a signal travel across and between neurons?

Neuron Function. How does a signal travel across and between neurons? Why? Neuron Function How does a signal travel across and between neurons? Just as the coaxial cables that run down your street or through your house carry television and Internet signals, the job of a

More information

Electrical Properties of Biological Systems

Electrical Properties of Biological Systems Laboratory 3 Electrical Properties of Biological Systems All cells are capable of maintaining a charge separation, or POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, across their membranes. This is due to the diffusion of sodium

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Cable Properties. Passive flow of current. Voltage Decreases With Distance

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Cable Properties. Passive flow of current. Voltage Decreases With Distance Slide 1 Properties of the nerve, axon, cell body and dendrite affect the distance and speed of membrane potential Passive conduction properties = cable properties Signal becomes reduced over distance depending

More information

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology Slide 1 of 38 Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

More information

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you

More information

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following

More information

Bi 360: Midterm Review

Bi 360: Midterm Review Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential

More information

Action Potentials I Generation. Reading: BCP Chapter 4

Action Potentials I Generation. Reading: BCP Chapter 4 Action Potentials I Generation Reading: BCP Chapter 4 Action Potentials Action potentials (AP s) aka Spikes (because of how they look in an electrical recording of Vm over time). Discharges (descriptive

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

More information

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise

More information

Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential

Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential parti This book is about the physiological characteristics of nerve and muscle cells. As we shall see, the ability of these cells to generate and conduct electricity

More information

Lab 1: Simulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential

Lab 1: Simulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential Lab 1: Simulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential Overview The aim of the present laboratory exercise is to simulate how changes in the ion concentration or ionic conductance can change

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Part 1: What are the parts of a nerve cell? 1. Read the information in the Biology Brief: Neurons. As you read, circle the names of the structures (parts) of the neuron. 2. Obtain

More information

CHAPTER XV PDL 101 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Ms. K. GOWRI. M.Pharm., Lecturer.

CHAPTER XV PDL 101 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Ms. K. GOWRI. M.Pharm., Lecturer. CHAPTER XV PDL 101 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Ms. K. GOWRI. M.Pharm., Lecturer. Types of Muscle Tissue Classified by location, appearance, and by the type of nervous system control or innervation. Skeletal

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 2 The Neural Impulse Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The cell body is enclosed by the. A) cell membrane

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

Total body water ~(60% of body mass): Intracellular fluid ~2/3 or ~65% Extracellular fluid ~1/3 or ~35% fluid. Interstitial.

Total body water ~(60% of body mass): Intracellular fluid ~2/3 or ~65% Extracellular fluid ~1/3 or ~35% fluid. Interstitial. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/phys-pharm/teaching/staffteaching/sergeykasparov.htmlpharm/teaching/staffteaching/sergeykasparov.html Physiology of the Cell Membrane Membrane proteins and their roles (channels,

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

We tend to think of threshold as a particular voltage at which the cell will fire an action potential if it is depolarized to or past that voltage.

We tend to think of threshold as a particular voltage at which the cell will fire an action potential if it is depolarized to or past that voltage. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.131: Introduction to Neuroscience Course Director: Dr. David Corey HST 131/Neuro 200 19 September 2005 Problem Set #2 Answer Key 1. Thresholds

More information

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc).

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc). Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function. One part of the cell receives incoming signals. Another part generates outgoing signals. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission

More information

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron:

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron: The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized

More information

The Action Potential

The Action Potential OpenStax-CNX module: m46526 1 The Action Potential OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you

More information

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Cardiovascular System Function. Functional Anatomy of the Heart

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Cardiovascular System Function. Functional Anatomy of the Heart Lecture Outline Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure Cardiovascular System Function Functional components of the cardiovascular system: Heart Blood Vessels Blood General functions

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 * = correct answer. 1. The Greek philosopher Aristotle hypothesized that the brain was a) A radiator for cooling the blood.* b) The seat of the soul. c) The organ

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Core Concept: Nerve cells communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Class time required: Approximately 2 forty minute class periods Teacher Provides: For each student

More information

Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane. AP Biology

Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane. AP Biology Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane More than just a barrier Expanding our view of cell membrane beyond just a phospholipid bilayer barrier phospholipids plus Fluid Mosaic Model In 1972, S.J.

More information

Ions cannot cross membranes. Ions move through pores

Ions cannot cross membranes. Ions move through pores Ions cannot cross membranes Membranes are lipid bilayers Nonpolar tails Polar head Fig 3-1 Because of the charged nature of ions, they cannot cross a lipid bilayer. The ion and its cloud of polarized water

More information

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.

More information

Tutorial 2, Plasma Membrane

Tutorial 2, Plasma Membrane IPAM Cells and Materials: At the Interface between Mathematics, Biology and Engineering Tutorial 2, Plasma Membrane Dr. Toshikazu Hamasaki Dept. Bioengineering, UCLA Plasma Membrane Lipid Bi-layer Creates

More information

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

Basic elements of neuroelectronics -- membranes -- ion channels -- wiring

Basic elements of neuroelectronics -- membranes -- ion channels -- wiring Computing in carbon Basic elements of neuroelectronics -- membranes -- ion channels -- wiring Elementary neuron models -- conductance based -- modelers alternatives Wires -- signal propagation -- processing

More information

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro:

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro: Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret

More information

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below:

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below: The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets

More information

Problem Sets: Questions and Answers

Problem Sets: Questions and Answers BI 360: Neurobiology Fall 2014 Problem Sets: Questions and Answers These problems are provided to aid in your understanding of basic neurobiological concepts and to guide your focus for in-depth study.

More information

2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY

2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY 2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY ** Due before 5 PM on WEDNESDAY, November 22, 2006. ** Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. You create an artificial

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

More information

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS AND GLIA CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Glia Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response

More information

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function C H A P T E R 3 The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function Cynthia J. Forehand, Ph.D. CHAPTER OUTLINE PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROPERTIES, THE ACTION POTENTIAL, AND ELECTRICAL

More information

4. Biology of the Cell

4. Biology of the Cell 4. Biology of the Cell Our primary focus in this chapter will be the plasma membrane and movement of materials across the plasma membrane. You should already be familiar with the basic structures and roles

More information

Cell Membrane Structure and Function. Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin

Cell Membrane Structure and Function. Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin Cell Membrane Structure and Function Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin Why do we need the plasma membrane? Keeping the goods concentrated Keeping harmful materials out Transports substances in and out of the cell

More information

Involuntary muscle, ie., not under voluntary control Not striated under microscope Not multinucleated. IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics

Involuntary muscle, ie., not under voluntary control Not striated under microscope Not multinucleated. IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics Suggested external links: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes3.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_ihc26yxn4&nr=1 Three types of muscle tissues: Skeletal, Smooth

More information

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central

More information

Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find

Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find these muscles? 2. Compare and contrast the three muscle

More information

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity CH 7 Membranes Cellular Membranes Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The fluid mosaic

More information

Simulation of an Action Potential using the Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Python. Nathan Law 250560559. Medical Biophysics 3970

Simulation of an Action Potential using the Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Python. Nathan Law 250560559. Medical Biophysics 3970 Simulation of an Action Potential using the Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Python Nathan Law 250560559 Medical Biophysics 3970 Instructor: Dr. Ian MacDonald TA: Nathaniel Hayward Project Supervisor: Dr. Andrea

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam 1 1. Which definition is the best definition of the term gross anatomy? a. The study of cells. b. The study of tissues. c. The study of structures

More information

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport State Standard Standard 1.a. Membrane Function 1, Forms a boundary between living cells and their surroundings. 2. Controls the movement of molecules into and

More information

Biological Membranes. Impermeable lipid bilayer membrane. Protein Channels and Pores

Biological Membranes. Impermeable lipid bilayer membrane. Protein Channels and Pores Biological Membranes Impermeable lipid bilayer membrane Protein Channels and Pores 1 Biological Membranes Are Barriers for Ions and Large Polar Molecules The Cell. A Molecular Approach. G.M. Cooper, R.E.

More information

Introduction to Cardiac Electrophysiology, the Electrocardiogram, and Cardiac Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION

Introduction to Cardiac Electrophysiology, the Electrocardiogram, and Cardiac Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION Introduction to Cardiac Electrophysiology, the Electrocardiogram, and Cardiac Arrhythmias Alfred E. Buxton, M.D., Kristin E. Ellison, M.D., Malcolm M. Kirk, M.D., Gregory F. Michaud, M.D. INTRODUCTION

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

Modes of Membrane Transport

Modes of Membrane Transport Modes of Membrane Transport Transmembrane Transport movement of small substances through a cellular membrane (plasma, ER, mitochondrial..) ions, fatty acids, H 2 O, monosaccharides, steroids, amino acids

More information

Muscle Tissue. Muscle Physiology. Skeletal Muscle. Types of Muscle. Skeletal Muscle Organization. Myofibril Structure

Muscle Tissue. Muscle Physiology. Skeletal Muscle. Types of Muscle. Skeletal Muscle Organization. Myofibril Structure Muscle Tissue Muscle Physiology Chapter 12 Specially designed to contract Generates mechanical force Functions locomotion and external movements internal movement (circulation, digestion) heat generation

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB TRANSIENT RESPONSES IN RC CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION. Ian Cooper School of Physics, University of Sydney

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB TRANSIENT RESPONSES IN RC CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION. Ian Cooper School of Physics, University of Sydney DOING PHYSIS WITH MATLAB IUITS BIOPHYSIS TANSIENT ESPONSES IN IUITS Ian ooper School of Physics, University of Sydney ian.cooper@sydney.edu.au MATLAB SIPTS (download files) simpson1d.m (function: integration

More information

Electrophysiology Introduction, Basics. The Myocardial Cell. Chapter 1- Thaler

Electrophysiology Introduction, Basics. The Myocardial Cell. Chapter 1- Thaler Electrophysiology Introduction, Basics Chapter 1- Thaler The Myocardial Cell Syncytium Resting state Polarized negative Membrane pump Depolarization fundamental electrical event of the heart Repolarization

More information

IONS, CHANNELS, CURRENTS, AND ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS

IONS, CHANNELS, CURRENTS, AND ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.721: The Peripheral Auditory System, Fall 2005 Instructors: Professor M. Charles Liberman and Professor Joe Adams HST.721 Fall, 2005 IONS, CHANNELS,

More information

Cells Need to Exchange Materials with the Extracellular Fluid. Membrane Transport. Plasma Membrane. Cells Must Control Movements of Materials

Cells Need to Exchange Materials with the Extracellular Fluid. Membrane Transport. Plasma Membrane. Cells Must Control Movements of Materials Membrane Transport Chapter 6 Cells Need to Exchange Materials with the Extracellular Fluid Take in nutrients O 2 energy substrates building materials cofactors Dispose of wastes CO 2 Urea Cells Must Control

More information

Before continuing try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article.

Before continuing try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article. EXCITABLE TISSUE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 173 8 TH MARCH 2010 Dr John Whittle Specialist Registrar Anaesthetics Dr Gareth Ackland Consultant and Clinical Scientist Anaesthetics,

More information

North Bergen School District Benchmarks

North Bergen School District Benchmarks Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living

More information

Standards Alignment Minnesota Science Standards Alignment Matrix www.brainu.org/resources/mnstds

Standards Alignment Minnesota Science Standards Alignment Matrix www.brainu.org/resources/mnstds Lesson Summary: Neurons transfer information by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse or space between neurons. Students model the chemical communication between pre-synaptic and post-synaptic

More information

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram.

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram. 2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Use the diagram in answering Questions 1-5. 1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions

More information

Membranes very thin films of molecules that enclose cells, organelles, compartments

Membranes very thin films of molecules that enclose cells, organelles, compartments Membranes Overview Membranes very thin films of molecules that enclose cells, organelles, compartments Membrane composition Very different composition in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Typically composed of

More information

BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages. The Plasma Membrane Structure and Function. Phospholipids. I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II.

BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages. The Plasma Membrane Structure and Function. Phospholipids. I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II. BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II. Chemistry of Life Chemistry review (30-46) Water (47-57) Carbon (58-67) Macromolecules (68-91) III. Cells and Membranes Cell structure

More information

SimNerv : Protocol Form

SimNerv : Protocol Form SimNerv : Protocol Form Compound Action Potentials (CAPs) (Name) Group:... Date:... (Name of supervisor) 1. Specific Features of Extracellar Stimulation and CAP Recordings 1.1 Biphasic and Monophasic Potentials,

More information

Current Concepts in Electrical Stimulation Professor Tim Watson School of Health & Emergency Professions University of Hertfordshire The general principles of electrical stimulation (whether using TENS,

More information

What will you learn?

What will you learn? What will you learn? Cell Membrane and Transport PLO B9 B10 It is expected that students will analyse the structure and function of the cell membrane explain why cells divide when they reach a particular

More information

BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS

BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MSci EXAMINATION May 2007 for Internal Students of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship

More information

BR #5. What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast

BR #5. What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast BR #5 What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast Schedule: Notes: Membrane physiology Microscope Lab Essentials

More information

The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid

The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid The aqueous environment inside and outside a cell prevents membrane lipids from escaping from bilayer, but nothing stops these molecules from moving about and

More information

CHAPTER I From Biological to Artificial Neuron Model

CHAPTER I From Biological to Artificial Neuron Model Ugur HALICI ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS CHAPTER CHAPTER I From Biological to Artificial Neuron Model Martin Gardner in his book titled 'The Annotated Snark" has the following note for the last illustration

More information

CHAPTER 5.1 5.2: Plasma Membrane Structure

CHAPTER 5.1 5.2: Plasma Membrane Structure CHAPTER 5.1 5.2: Plasma Membrane Structure 1. Describe the structure of a phospholipid molecule. Be sure to describe their behavior in relationship to water. 2. What happens when a collection of phospholipids

More information

PSIO 603/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 2007 MRB 422; 626-6833 jburt@u.arizona.edu. MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle

PSIO 603/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 2007 MRB 422; 626-6833 jburt@u.arizona.edu. MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle SIO 63/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 27 MRB 422; 626-6833 MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle READING: Boron & Boulpaep pages: 483-57 OBJECTIVES: 1. Draw a picture of the heart in vertical (frontal

More information

The structure and function of the plasma membrane

The structure and function of the plasma membrane The structure and function of the plasma membrane Our current view of membrane structure is based on the fluid mosaic model. This model proposes that membranes are not rigid, with molecules locked into

More information

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter Objectives ANATOMY OF THE HEART 1. Describe the location and orientation of the heart within the thorax and mediastinal cavity. 2. Describe the

More information

Auditory System. The physical stimulus

Auditory System. The physical stimulus Auditory System The physical stimulus - physical stimulus for audition is timevarying changes in air pressure that propagate through space in wave-like manner - e.g., pure tone played by speaker: sinusoidal

More information

Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure

Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure POGIL Guided Inquiry Learning Targets Explain the importance of the plasma membrane. Compare and contrast different types of passive transport. Explain how

More information

CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION. Teacher Packet

CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION. Teacher Packet AP * BIOLOGY CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production

More information

Biological Neurons and Neural Networks, Artificial Neurons

Biological Neurons and Neural Networks, Artificial Neurons Biological Neurons and Neural Networks, Artificial Neurons Introduction to Neural Networks : Lecture 2 John A. Bullinaria, 2004 1. Organization of the Nervous System and Brain 2. Brains versus Computers:

More information

Electrophysiological Recording Techniques

Electrophysiological Recording Techniques Electrophysiological Recording Techniques Wen-Jun Gao, PH.D. Drexel University College of Medicine Goal of Physiological Recording To detect the communication signals between neurons in real time (μs to

More information

Electrolyte Physiology. Something in the way she moves

Electrolyte Physiology. Something in the way she moves Electrolyte Physiology Something in the way she moves me Electrolyte Movement CONCENTRATION GRADIENT ELECTRICAL GRADIENT DRIVING FORCE NERNST NUMBER (E-ion) CONDUCTANCE (G-ion) PERMEABILITY CHANNELS: small

More information