1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied.

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1 Nervous System - Chapter Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied. 2. Distinguish between the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. 3. Identify the parts and explain the functions of the neuron. 4. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted along a neuron. 5. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted between neurons and at the junction between neurons and muscles 6. Classify the three types of neurons. 7. Explain the components of a reflex arc and how reflexes maintain homeostasis. 8. Identify major parts of the brain and state their functions. 9. Describe the organization of the peripheral nervous system. 10. Identify and describe the parts of the eye and explain its relationship to the nervous system. 11. Identify and describe the parts of the ear and explain its relationship to the nervous system. Vocabulary: see packet page 3 1

2 Amazing and Wonderful Nervous System Web Links Neuroscience for Kids Hauser-Ross Eye Institute and Surgicenter Can Teach (the nervous system) The Nervous System The Secret Life of the Brain The Human Bodyʼs Brain/Nervous System Theme Page Animations about Nervous System Physiology and Processes Mad Scientist 24-Hour On-Line Laboratory -->searchable site of reliable info American Optometric Association 2

3 NERVOUS SYSTEM VOCABULARY The vocabulary for this unit has been divided by topic and text section for your learning pleasure!! (you re welcome:) Neuron Eye 20/20 vision glaucoma axon cornea rods dendrite lens cones cell body iris optic nerve myelin pupil sclera schwann cell colorblindness tears axon bud (synaptic knob) cataract nearsighted direction of nerve impulse retina farsighted pictures of different kinds of neurons astigmatism pink eye blind spot fovea Reflex Arc sensory neuron motor neuron interneuron effector receptor stimulus response spinal cord brain Peripheral Nervous System somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system motor neurons 3

4 Nervous System Thinking Questions Neurons 1. Neurons are highly specialized cells. How does the structure (shape) of a neuron relate to its function? Reflexes 1. Can you learn reflexes? Explain. 2. Name five specific places in your body that you would find: Sensory neurons-- Motor neurons-- 3. Provide several examples of : Internal stimuli-- External stimuli-- 4. How are neurons arranged? (i.e. what part of one neuron is nearest the next one) 4

5 5. Our body is set up so that only three neurons are involved in a reflex. Why is this beneficial? Peripheral Nervous Systems 4. Which part of the PNS controls homeostasis? 5. Which part of the PNS allows you to speak, perceive light, and walk? 6. What type of neurons are in the PNS? 7. Which specific part of the PNS controls heart rate when watching a scary movie or taking a tough bio pop quiz? 8. Which part of the PNS effects a change upon muscles, organs, and glands? 9. What is controlled by the: somatic nervous system? autonomic nervous system? Central Nervous Systems 1. What are three ways that the body provides protection for the CNS? 2. List and give the function of each of the major parts of the brain. 3. What are the four main lobes of the brain and what activities does each one control? 5

6 4. Which part of a baby s brain is least developed? How do you know? 5. What kind of neurons are in the CNS? 6. What does your HUGE cerebrum allow humans to do that other organisms can t do? Eye 1. What nervous system changes the size of the pupil? 2. If a person is blind, what part(s) of the eye is(are) malfunctioning? 3. Can your lens change shape? Why? 4. What part of the eye changes light into nerve impulses? 5. Explain the complete path of light through the eye, all the way to the brain. 6

7 A Generalized Neuron Label the parts of the generalized neuron on this page. Indicate the function of each part of the neuron in your notebook

8 Reflex Arc- Name the structure or activity that is represented by each of the numbered structures. Be sure to define any new terms that you label on the diagram in your notebook. 8

9 9

10 Identify the following numbered structures of a synapse between two neurons. In the space below

11 The Human Use this diagram to label/color the 4 main lobes of the human 11

12 The Human Brain in Transverse Section Label the following brain parts on this page. Indicate the role of each brain structure in your notebook. 1. BACK 2. FRONT

13 The Human Eye Label the parts of the eye on this page. Indicate functions/role of each part as it relates to vision in your notebook

14 Nervous System Review DIRECTIONS: This review is meant to determine what you have learned well and not so well from the nervous system unit, chapter 35. Answer as many questions as you can without looking back at the textbook or notes; pretend this is a quiz. The questions you cannot answer without looking indicate the topics that you do not know very well, and therefore are the topics/concepts you should focus on the most when preparing for the test. If you cannot determine the answers on your own, ask for help!! 1. List four functions of the nervous system. Explain which main division of the nervous system controls each function. 2. What is the difference between the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system? 3. Describe the differences in the functions of the sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. 4. What is the function of neurotransmitters? 5. What a reflex? Can reflexes be learned? What is the difference between and habit and a reflex? List the following five terms in sequence of function in a reflex pathway: interneuron, muscle, motor neuron, sensory neuron, pain receptor. 6. What part of the brain controls balance and coordination? 7. What part of the brain controls muscle activities? 8. What part of the brain is made of gray matter and has numerous functions? 9. What is the function of the: hypothalamus, brain stem, thalamus, spinal cord, cerebrum, cerebellum? 10. What are the two branches of the peripheral nervous system? Explain the role of each in maintaining homeostasis? 14

15 11. What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system? 12. Which system from question # 11 would control your body when you are: a. frightened b. sleeping c. exercising d. eating e. studying 13. List each of the main components of the eye. Describe the function that each performs. 15

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