Cut and fill Minerals and Waste Planning for further innovation in waste management within the North East David Brignall, Technical Director

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1 Cut and fill Minerals and Waste Planning for further innovation in waste management within the North East David Brignall, Technical Director

2 Overview of Wardell Armstrong Energy and climate change Environment and sustainability Infrastructure and utilities Land and property Mining, quarrying and mineral estates Waste resource management

3 Background North East Region Mineral extraction -important economic driver Landfill land restoration of worked out voids Landraise areas where limited mineral activity & close to urban areas Recycling and recovery associated with existing landfill activity Recent uptake of a wide range of waste management technologies by the industry Incentives through taxation and renewable credits / tariffs Record of pioneering innovation

4 Path Head Landfill Former mineral extraction site No restoration prior to extraction Restoration and landscaping required Waste as fill material Landscaping upon completion of landfill Landfill gas recovery (infrastructure for AD)

5 Outline of paper Planning for further innovation in the waste management sector Review of waste arising in the NE Comparison with future targets / low carbon future Examples for merchant facilities that deliver innovation Options for future innovation Planning and environment for sustainable development PREVENTION PREPARING FOR REUSE RECYCLING ENERGY RECOVERY DISPOSAL

6 Policy Context EU s Approach to Waste Management Waste Incineration Directive Carbon Budgets Order 2009 Waste Strategy for England 2007 Planning Policy Statement 10: Planning for Sustainable Waste Management Decentralisation and Localism Bill Commercial and Industrial Waste in England Statement of aims and actions 2009

7 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in North East England

8 Trend in the management of MSW in the North East

9 Targets for reduction in biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) to landfill LATS Allocations % ( tonnes) % ( tonnes) % ( tonnes) Reductions based on 1990 emissions levels

10 C&I Waste Arising in the North East

11 Management of C&I Waste in the North East

12 Operational waste management facilities in NE Type of facility No. Landfill sites 28 Land disposal 1 Incineration 2 Transfer 210 Treatment 37 Metal recycling sites 160 Total 438

13 Recycling in North East England 35% of municipal solid waste recycled/composted 43% of C&I waste recycled/composted Predominantly separated collection (MSW) Sorting (manual and mechanised) Processing of material to a form that can be used

14 Targets for a low carbon future Carbon Budgets Order % reduction in emissions by % reduction in emissions by 2050 Budget 1 ( ) 3018 MtCO 2 e (22% reduction) Budget 2 ( ) MtCO 2 e (28% reduction) Budget 3 ( ) MtCO 2 e (34% reduction) Reductions based on 1990 emissions levels

15 Associated emissions of different materials (waste management options) Waste fraction kg CO 2 e emitted per tonne virgin material Net kg CO2e emitted per tonne of waste treated / disposed of by Recycling Energy from waste Landfill Power only Open Loop Closed Loop moving grate Anaerobic Digestion Paper and Card Kitchen/food 4, waste Wood Plastic (dense) 3,100-1,500 1, Plastic (film) 2,500-1,000 1,800 35

16 Life Cycle Analysis of different waste management Techniques Figures are per tonne of waste managed 7674 kgco2e per tonne of virgin material manufactured

17 Recent projects in the waste management sector Plastics study (North East Region, Renew) Waste management -Darlington household waste Merchant facilities - Graphite Resources (Derwenthaugh, Gareshead) - INEOS Bio (Seal Sands, Teesside) - O2N Energy (Billingham, Teesside) - Scott Brothers (Reedbed treatment Billingham, Teesside) - Emerald Biogas (Aycliffe Industrial Estate)

18 Plastic waste arising in the North East The UK uses over 5 million tonnes of plastic each year estimated 19% is currently recovered or recycled Between 2.7 and 3.4 million tonnes of post-use plastic entered the waste stream in 2007/2008 Approximately 1 million tonnes of non-bottle plastic packaging, through MSW in 2007/2008 The polymer most used by UK manufacturers is L/LLDPE - films for packaging and non-packaging applications* *WRAP, UK Plastic Wastes, a Review of Supplies for Recycling, Global Market Demand, Future Trends and Associated Risks, Final Report 2006 WRAP, Domestic Mixed Plastics Packaging Waste Management Options, June 2008.

19 Context From North West study 730,000 tonnes waste plastic (pub 2008) Population size = 6,729,800 Plastic per head of population = 108 kg per person From East of England study (data from 2006) 38,799 tonnes waste plastic (pub 2008) Population size = 5,388,154 Plastic per head of population = 7.2 kg per person From North East study (data from 2007) 44,135 tonnes waste plastic Population size = 2,515,479 Plastic per head of population = 17 kg per person

20 Recovery / reuse of clean plastics Segregated types and grades of plastic Clean and process to flakes Products include food grade HDCE used for milk bottle, food trays and cosmetics bottles Example: WES Greenstar Plastic Recycling Facility, Teesside

21 Plastics life cycle Energy recovery Well established UK Consumer Collection Recycling/ Poorly established transfer Reprocess Manufacture Shared Risk Markets Europe Closed Loop Far East/Asia Export market for plastic

22 Darlington waste contract John Wade Aycliffe waste treatment Treatment process for Darlington household waste Gicom -In vessel biodrying Clean MRF Greenwaste compost Non biodegradables to further sorting and recycling Residuals to landfill Source segregated plastics Air flow pipes

23 Life Cycle Analysis Darlington generates approximately 66,000 t of MSW per annum Previous operations Collection Transfer (Heightington) Landfill (Blaydon Quarry) Life cycle emissions of 17500tCO 2 e per annum Current operations Collection MBT and Sorting Recycling - Landfill Restoration Life cycle emission of tCO 2 e per annum Note: based on Defra carbon calculator

24 Merchant facility Graphite Resources - Derwenthaugh Capacity to handle <350,000t mixed waste Based on primary stage Autoclave Second stage clean MRF segregation of materials (Bollegraaf) Cellmat / plastics / glass / metals Autoclave Conveyor from Autoclaves to MRF Autoclave unit

25 Merchant facility biofuel from organic waste INEOS Bio Seal Sands Bioethanol refinery tonnes biomass from waste treatment facilities p.a tonnes of fuel grade bioethanol produced p.a. 3.7 MWe available for export to the grid Granted planning permission in 2010 Green wastes Waste wood chip & Compost mulch Waste (Household, commercial, industrial)

26 Merchant facility biofuel from organic waste INEOS Bio Seal Sands Feedstock versatility allows a range of biomass feedstocks Waste heat and offgas recovery for renewable power Two stage gasification to produce syngas without significant by-products Syngas converted into bioethanol via fermentation using proprietary biocatalyst then distillation

27 Merchant facility advanced thermal treatment O2N Energy (Billingham) LLP Gasification technology (PRM Energy) Materials recycling facility MRF tonnes p.a. EfW tonnes p.a. 12 Mwe Heat off-take to adjacent industrial users Approx 30,000 tonnes p.a. Recycled Granted planning permission in 2010 Materials Recycling Fuel for gasifier

28 Merchant facility biological treatment liquid waste Scott Brothers Ltd Billingham Reedbeds Reed bed treatment of contaminated sludge High content of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons Treatment of chemical waste streams

29 Merchant facility combined heat and power Emerald biogas Aycliffe Industrial Estate Anaerobic Digester Combined heat and power 4.4 MWe and 4.4 MWt Fuel comprising of food waste, silage, slurry and glycerol tonnes p.a. Digestate used as fertilizer Construction 2011

30 Anaerobic digestion Potential in North East England Available fuel 23,9267 t of animal and vegetable waste generated C&I sector t of MSW arising in 2009 of which ~60% is biodegradable ( t) Benefits of anaerobic digestion Lower emissions than other waste management options (for the waste that can be treated through AD) Benefits from the RO, FiT and potentially the RHI Can be decentralised (reduction of transport costs and emissions, local economy benefits)

31 Anaerobic digestion typical details Medium scale food processing Biogas Electrical generation Biogas to grid 90,000 Te/yr Mixer Macerator Feed Module Digester Digestate Storage Combined heat and power Decanter / separator Liquid fertiliser agriculture Typical screw feed and macerator food waste Digestor towers 10 to 20m in height Soil amendment or compost

32 Waste planning cut & fill Linkage with mineral extraction Network of transfer stations (urban location feeding disposal network in rural locations many active and former quarries. Temporary use of land final restoration within a set timescale In NE transportation based on HGVs Current infrastructure and geographic distribution favours continuation while landfill void space remains with continuing uptake by large scale Energy from Waste (Teesside)

33 Current requirements for waste planning PFI / Municipal Waste Contracts Current long term contracts based on combination of: - recovery (separate doorstep collections), - material separation (MRFs) - MBT (including green waste compost) - Large scale energy from waste - Landfill (with gas recovery) Commercial and industrial wastes Shorter term contracts that make use of capacity within existing infrastructure

34 Changes in approach to waste planning Planning for innovation in waste management for the future Merchant facilities are delivering innovation at risk the market determines survival through award of long term contracts Is there a sufficient waste resource for large scale innovation? - Gaia Power 50MWe (partly based on waste wood) - INEOS Bio 30M litres bioethanol (waste organics) - Chemical production (fermentation of organic waste) Small to medium scale determining preferred locations to promote low carbon technologies

35 Anaerobic digestion Potential in North East England Potential locations for anaerobic digestion Make use of existing electricity generating infrastructure (landfill gas engine or turbine), existing grid connection option for gas grid Close to sources of organic waste (commercial) Innovation National demonstrator project Wilton Centre Cockle Park Farm demonstration / research Mini AD for the meat processing sector

36 Environmental planning & sustainability Regional issues Transportation of waste Capacity as existing landfill infrastructure closes Non fossil carbon - valuable resource Site / operational effects Health effects Protection of amenity (odour, noise & visual) Environmental management / permitting

37 Conclusions The North East has: Range of well established waste management infrastructure with final disposal by EfW or landfill with gas recovery. Demonstrated innovation, through research and development. Waste industry developing infrastructure to meet reduction in landfill Interest of entrepreneurs to promote further innovation through merchant facilities. The Challenge for future planning is to maintain the delivery of effective waste management whilst enabling further innovation that promotes low carbon solutions.

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