English for Academic Skills Independence (EASI) Workshop 2

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1 English for Academic Skills Independence (EASI) Workshop 2

2 Session 2 Grammar

3 Quiz Quick question from Session 1 Turn to your neighbour and see how many parts of speech you can both remember

4 Parts of speech: Summary

5 By the end of this session you will be able to identify auxiliary and main verbs list four types of activities (verbs) e.g. doing

6 Activity 1 What is the definition of a verb? How can we identify verbs in a sentence? Let s have some practice

7 Auxiliary verbs Which are the verbs in this sentence? Social networking websites can be defined as online spaces Social networking websites can be defined as online spaces

8 Auxiliary verbs In this sentence there are three verbs: one main verb (MV) two auxiliary verbs (AV) AV AV MV Social networking websites can be defined as online spaces

9 Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are helping verbs they perform a number of functions in English Today we will focus on the role of auxiliary verbs in indicating tense For further information about the other functions, refer to the handout in the SL website

10 Indicating tense We need to use auxiliary verbs to form all tenses apart from present simple and past simple. The auxiliary verbs used to indicate tense are the following forms: be: be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being have: have, has, had, having

11 Tenses in English The auxiliary verbs be and have are used as follows: Time Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous Present consider[s] is considering has considered has been considering Past considered was considering Future will consider will be considering had considered will have considered had been considering will have been considering Technical note: what we are calling tense here is a combination of tense and aspect; however, for convenience we can refer to these as tenses.

12 Tenses in English: Forms of main verb In addition to the auxiliary verbs we also need to be aware of the forms of the main verb. Note the form of the main verb for present simple Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present consider[s] is considering has considered has been considering Past considered was considering Future will consider will be considering had considered will have considered had been considering will have been considering

13 Tenses in English: Forms of main verb Note the form of the main verb for past simple Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present consider[s] is considering has considered Past considered was considering Future will consider will be considering had considered will have considered has been considering had been considering will have been considering

14 Tenses in English: Forms of main verb Note the form of the main verb for present perfect. This form has a special name: Past participle Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present consider[s] is considering has considered has been considering Past considered was considering Future will consider will be considering List of irregular verbs had considered will have considered had been considering will have been considering

15 Tenses in English: Forms of main verb Note the form of the main verb for present continuous and perfect continuous. This form has a special name: Present participle Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present consider[s] is considering has considered has been considering Past considered was considering Future will consider will be considering had considered will have considered had been considering will have been considering

16 Active voice Note that all of these examples have been using active voice. Here are some examples: Present simple The committee considers applications every month. The committee considered the application very carefully. Past simple Can you identify the tense in each of these examples? What if we wanted to start the sentence not with the committee, but with the application

17 Passive voice Here are the same examples where we start with the application: The applications are considered every month. The applications were considered very carefully. In these examples, we have to use a different form of the verb. This is called passive voice:

18 Passive voice Note what happens to the verb when we start with the application: Present simple The applications are considered every month. The applications were considered very carefully. Past simple In these examples, we have to use a different form of the verb. This is called passive voice.

19 Passive voice Note the auxiliary verb be in each sentence: Present simple The applications are considered every month. The applications were considered very carefully. Past simple The passive voice presents some difficulties in some of the tenses.

20 Passive voice: Tense activity What is the passive voice form for each of these tenses? Use the verb consider. The first one has been done for you. Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present is considered - Past - Future -

21 Passive voice: Tense activity Here is the passive voice form for each of these tenses: Time simple continuous perfect Perfect continuous Present is considered is being considered Past Future was considered will be considered was being considered will be being considered has been considered had been considered will have been considered We will return to passive voice in Workshop 11.

22 Auxiliary verbs: Summary You need to know the form and function of these three auxiliary verbs in English: be do have You also need to know the modal auxiliary verbs.

23 Modal auxiliary verbs Modal verbs are associated with two important areas of meaning: Likelihood Obligation may might must should could need to Note that modality is dealt with in Workshop 9

24 Verb patterns It is useful to recognise verbs, and we can classify them according to four categories. What is the most obvious category? Doing [we learn first that a verb is an action] What other categories can you think of?

25 Four different types of activities A British linguist (Halliday, 1985) developed a useful way of classifying verbs, adapted here for simplicity: Doing & happening Thinking & feeling Saying Being & having

26 Task: Four different types of activity Choose the best category label for each column from this list: Saying Being & having Thinking & feeling Doing & happening construct build disintegrate measure demonstrate believe forget hope love realise recognise argue explain discuss comment claim contend seem appear own possess

27 Task: Four different types of activity Here are some examples: Doing & happening Thinking & feeling Saying Being & having construct build disintegrate measure demonstrate believe forget hope love realise recognise argue explain discuss comment claim Contend seem appear own possess

28 Verb patterns It is useful to recognise verbs, and to classify them according to these four categories: Doing & happening Thinking & feeling Saying Being & having

29 Dummy subject There is or There are The be verb is sometimes used with a dummy subject. Activity: How could you improve this sentence? There is one key benefit of using Facebook in teaching and learning which is its obvious capacity as a space for students to socialise.

30 Traps: There is or There are Students tend to overuse this form as a dummy subject: There is one key benefit of using Facebook in teaching and learning which is its obvious capacity as a space for students to socialise. One key benefit of using Facebook in teaching and learning is its obvious capacity as a space for students to socialise.

31 To summarise You will communicate more effectively if you become sensitised to the following: Verbs Auxiliary verbs Main verbs Four activity types

32 End of classroom session Here are some follow-up reading activities you might like to do: Read the notes which follow about verb patterns Read the notes which follow about stative and dynamic verbs

33 Verb patterns [1] It is useful to recognise verbs, and to classify them according to these four categories: Doing & happening Thinking & feeling Saying Being & having

34 Doing & happening The sentence structure with action verbs is reasonably straightforward: Thing Doing verb Circumstance (where) The soil was placed in the furnace.

35 Thinking & feeling Note that these verbs are more likely to be expressed in the present simple: Thing Thinking activity Projected clause Duffy (2011) believes that Facebook has many educational benefits. not the present continuous: Duffy (2011) is believing

36 Thinking & feeling Note the grammatical pattern here can you notice any significant difference in meaning? I saw him talking to his friend. I saw him talk to his friend. I heard her singing that song. I heard her sing that song

37 Thinking & feeling Note the grammatical patterns with some perceiving verbs: Would you mind opening the door for me? Would you mind if I opened the window?

38 Saying Note that the relative pronoun that is used to introduce the projected clause: Participant Saying verb Projected clause Duffy (2011) contends that Facebook can connect students

39 Being & having Note that relational verbs, such as be and have, are frequently used in academic writing. Thing relating verb Thing Socialising is a crucial component of the student tertiary experience.

40 Complement Note that the complement will typically follow a relational verb [be/seem/appear/feel] Thing Being activity Complement Socialising is a crucial component of the student tertiary experience. She seems very capable. It feels quite warm in here.

41 Verb patterns [2] Intransitive verbs Transitive verbs Di-transitive verbs Ergative verbs Phrasal verbs Colligation You are not expected to learn all of these terms; the examples which follow will help to clarify

42 Verb patterns: Intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs do not need an object: The temperature dropped. Unemployment rose.

43 Verb patterns: Transitive verbs Transitive verbs do need an object: Subject verb Object I broke the test-tube.

44 Verb patterns: Di-transitive verbs Di-transitive verbs need two objects, a direct object and an indirect object; note the two versions: Subject verb Direct Object Lee gave the test-tube to I u. Indirect Object Subject verb Indirect Object Direct Object Lee gave I u the testtube.

45 Di-transitive verbs: Passive voice Note the two possibilities for the subject: Subject verb Direct object Prepositional phrase The test-tube was given was to I u by Lee. Subject verb Direct object Prepositional phrase I u was given the test-tube by Lee.

46 Verb patterns: Ergative verbs Ergative verbs are an interesting category because they allow us to represent an activity as if it did not have a cause. Compare these sentences: I broke the test-tube. [active voice] The test-tube was broken. [passive voice] The test-tube broke. [active voice ergative]

47 Verb patterns: Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are associated with informal English. There are two main patterns: verb + adverb [log off] verb + preposition [put off] Click here to see a list of phrasal verbs:

48 HW activity: Phrasal verbs Try this activity to help you identify the correct form of phrasal verbs:

49 Verb patterns: Colligation One important aspect of colligation (grammatical patterns) involves verbs in phase. There are two main patterns: verb + -ing form verb + to -infinitive Colligation will be dealt with in Session 11 - Vocabulary

50 Stative and dynamic verbs An American linguist (Vendler, 1957) developed two categories of verbs: stative and dynamic : stative like believe forget seem hope love hate sense dynamic realise recognise finish disappear shatter disintegrate measure demonstrate

51 Dynamic verbs Vendler (1957) further analysed dynamic verbs: Terminal point instant Achievement [i.e. endpoint] realise recognize notice find duration Accomplishment [i.e. gradual] finish disappear construct build No terminal point completed activity knock blink break shatter disintegrate walk measure demonstrate critique read discuss

52 Stative and dynamic verbs It is helpful to classify verbs (or activity types) in this way, because it helps us to recognise the grammatical patterns with each group. Visit this website to explore further examples and explanations:

53 Homework Irregular verbs: Verbs and tenses: ex.shtml#c Phrasal verbs: Stative and dynamic verbs:

54 Videos Future forms Present perfect and present continuous

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