Laboratory #3 Diode Basics and Applications (I)


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1 Laboraory #3 iode asics and pplicaions (I) I. Objecives 1. Undersand he basic properies of diodes. 2. Undersand he basic properies and operaional principles of some dioderecifier circuis. II. omponens and Insrumens 1. omponens Transformer 1, diode (IN4004) 4, 1 KΩ 1, 4.7 KΩ 1, 100 μf 2, 33μF 1 2. Insrumens (1) Funcion generaor (2) igial mulimeer (3) Oscilloscope III. Reading oncenraion will be on Secion 3.5 of he Texbook Microelecronic ircuis Sixh Ediion, a familiariy wih he fundamenals of diode being assumed. I. Preparaion 1. Power supply One of he mos imporan applicaions of diodes is in he design of recifier circuis. diode recifier forms an essenial building block of he dc power supplies required o power elecronic equipmen. block diagram of such a power supply is shown in Fig The firs block is he power ransformer. I can be used o sep he line volage down o he value required o yield he paricular dc volage oupu of supply. nd i can also provide elecrical isolaion beween he elecronic equipmen and he powerline circui. The diode recifier convers he inpu sinusoid o a unipolar oupu. nd he filer makes he oupu more consan. The regulaor regulaes he oupu agains he variaion in differen condiion. 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 31 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
2 Fig. 3.1 block diagram of such a power supply 2. The relaion among, rms, The relaion among imum volage ( ), peakopeak volage ( pp ), RooMeanSquare volage ( rms ) and erage volage ( ) of a sine we is shown in Fig rms pp Fig. 3.2 The relaion among, pp, rms and of a sinusoid (1) Maximum volage ( ) The imum volage value of a weform in one period is also called peak value. (2) Peakopeak volage ( pp ) The definiion of peakopeak value is he differenial value beween he imum and minimum value in one period. The value of pp is equal o 2 imes of. (3) RooMeanSquare volage ( rms ) Roomeansquare or RMS volage is he volage used for deermining he amoun of power ha a sinusoidal signal is capable of providing. RMS volage is defined as follows, where is he peak volage in he or sinusoidal signal. rms = / 2 Noe ha his equaion is only valid for sinusoidal signals. Using he RMS volage of a sinusoidal signal, you can deermine he power provided by ha signal using he following equaion. P = 2 rms / R 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 32 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
3 (4) verage volage ( ) The relaionbeween The relaionbeween rms 1 T 2 T and rms 1.11 or 2 2 sin( ) d T rms 0.9 and and rms 2 3. Halfwe recifier The halfwe recifier uilizes alernae halfcycles of he inpu of sinusoid. Fig. 3.3 shows he circui of a halfwe recifier. The circui consiss of he series connecion of a diode and a resisor. uring he posiive halfcycles of he inpu sinusoid, he posiive v ac will cause curren o flow hrough he diode in is forward direcion, and assume he diode o be ideal. The oupu volage will be equal o he inpu volage. On he oher hand, during he negaive halfcycles of v ac, he diode will no conduc. Thus oupu volage will be zero. Noe ha while v ac alernaes in polariy and has a zero erage value, oupu value is unidirecional and has a finie erage volage. The relaion beween v ac and is shown in he following equaion., 0.9 rms rms 0.45 v ac Making diode on Making diode on inpu v ac I Fig. 3.3 halfwe recifier circui 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 33 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
4 4. Fullwe recifier The fullwe recifier uilizes boh halves of he inpu sinusoid. To provide a unipolar oupu, i invers he negaive halves of he sine we. Fig. 3.4 shows he circui of a fullwe recifier. When he inpu line volage is posiive, boh of he signals labeled v ac1 and v ac2 will be posiive. In his case 1 will conduc and 2 will be reverse biased. uring he negaive half cycle of ac line volage, boh of he signals labeled v ac1 and v ac2 will be negaive. The 1 will be cu off while 2 will conduc. Noe ha he curren hrough he resisor always flows in he same direcion, and he oupu volage will be unipolar. The relaion beween v ac and is shown in he following equaion. v ac1 vac2 vac, 0.9 v ac 1 I inpu v ac1 v ac2 2 Fig. 3.4 Fullwe recifier circui 5. ridge recifier n alernaive implemenaion of he fullwe recifier is shown in Fig 3.5. The circui doesn require a cenerapped ransformer, a disinc advanage over he fullwe recifier circui of Fig The bridge recifier requires four diodes as compared o wo in he previous circui. Observe he Fig 3.6 ha here are wo diodes in series in he conducion pah, and hus oupu volage will be lower han inpu volage by wo diode drops. inpu 4 1 I v ac 2 3 Fig. 3.5 bridge recifier circui 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 34 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
5 Posiive cycle Negaive cycle Fig. 3.6 The conducion pahs in posiive and negaive cycles 6. The recifier wih a filer capacior The pulsaing naure of he oupu volage produced by he recifier discussed above makes i unsuiable as a dc supply for elecronic circuis. simple way is o place a capacior across he load resisor. To see how he recifier circui wih a filer capacior works, he simple circui is shown in Fig nd he analysis of oupu weform is shown in Fig nd he Fig. 3.9 is he oupu weform when oupu wihou load resisor. nd he value of he ripple peakopeak can be calculaed in he following equaion. p p (1 (1 T R e R )) f R in (1 e T1 R f in f ) 0 [1 e T R ] harging capacior ischarging capacior in ou in ou c = ou Fig. 3.7 recifier circui wih a filer capacior c pp ischarging harging T 1 T in Fig. 3.8 nalysis of oupu weform Fig. 3.9 When = 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 35 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
6 7. Ripple The definiion of ripple facor is shown in he following equaion. rms of ripple ripple Ripple facor ripple and of ripple 2 2 ssume ha he ripple is sinusoid o simplify he calculaion. nd he informaion of he ripple is shown in Fig min Δ 0 Fig Illusraion of ripple 8. olage doubler The halfwe volage doubler is shown in Fig uring he negaive half cycle of ac line volage v ac, he volage across he capacior 1 will be charged o he value abou by he curren hrough he diode 1. When he posiive half cycle of v ac, i connecs series wih he 1 and supplies he 2 imes value of o he load. The inpu v ac and oupu ou weforms are shown in Fig ou v ac 1 2 Fig halfwe volage doubler v ac ou 2 0 Fig The inpu v ac and oupu ou weforms 1 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 36 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
7 . Exploraions 1. Halfwe recifiers (1) onnec he circui as shown in Fig and use your MM o measure he ac volage of node (v bc ) and he dc volage of node ( ) which is across he resisance load. (2) Using he oscilloscope o measure he weforms of node ( bc ) and ( dc ), and observe he weforms a he same ime. Noe he relaionship beween he weform of node ( bc ) and ( dc ), and he effec of he diode, boh of is orienaion and of is volage drop Hz 12 6 =1 kω Fig (3) onnec he circui as shown in Fig and use your MM o measure boh he dc volage and he ac volage v dc which are across he resisance load. Wha s he ripple facor value? nd measure he weform across by using he oscilloscope. (4) hange he capacior L o 33μF of he circui shown in Fig Wha s he difference afer he aleraion? Observe he differences by using oscilloscope. (5) Wha s he frequency of he ripple? Hz 6 12 L =100 µf =1 kω Fig 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 37 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
8 2. Fullwe recifiers (1) onnec he circui as shown in Fig. 3.15, and use your MM o measure he ac volage of node (v ab ) and (v cb ). nd measure he dc volage of node ( ) which is across he resisance load. /v ab =? /v cb =? (2) Using he oscilloscope o measure he weform of node ( db ) Hz =1 kω 2 Fig (3) onnec he circui as shown in Fig. 3.16, and use your MM o measure boh he dc volage of node ( ) and he ac volage of node (v db ) which are across he resisance load. Wha s he ripple facor value? /v ab =? /v cb =? (4) nd measure he weform across by using he oscilloscope. (5) Wha s he frequency of he ripple? L =100 µf Hz =1 kω 2 Fig 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 38 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
9 3. Fullwe bridge recifiers (1) onnec he circui as shown in Fig. 3.17, and use your MM o measure he ac volage beween node and (v bc ). nd measure he dc volage of node ( ) which is across he resisance load. /v bc =? (2) Using he oscilloscope o measure he weform of node ( d ) Hz =1 kω Fig (3) onnec he circui as shown in Fig. 3.18, and use your MM o measure he ac volage beween node and (v bc ). nd measure he dc volage of node ( ) which is across he resisance load. /v bc =? (4) nd measure he weform across by using he oscilloscope. (5) Wha s he frequency of he ripple? Hz =1 kω L =100 µf Fig 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 39 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
10 4. Halfwe doubler [onus] (1) onnec he circui as shown in Fig wih a 6 rms sine we inpu a 60 Hz. Using your MM, measure he ac and dc volage a nodes, and. (2) Using he oscilloscope o measure he weforms of nodes, and. (3) While observing nodes and, and measuring he dc oupu a node, connec a 4.7 kω load from node o ground. (4) Now, raise he frequency by a facor of 10 (o 600Hz) and observe he resuls. (5) Now, wih he frequency again a 60Hz, change he inpu weform o square we, and observe he changes, paricularly in he naure of he oupu ripple and he oupu volage. 6 rms 60Hz v ac 1 =100 µf =100 µf ou Fig 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 310 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
11 lass: Name: Laboraory #3 Prelab Suden I: Noe: In hese simulaions, you can replace he volage v ac generaed from ransformer by a sinewe volage source. Noe ha he 6 means is roomeansquare value is onnec he circui as shown in Fig and Fig and simulae he circuis by PSpice. Show he weform which is across he load resisor. Please aach he schemaic and simulaion resuls. 2. onnec he circui as shown in Fig and Fig and simulae he circuis by PSpice. Show he weform which is across he load resisor. Please aach he schemaic and simulaion resuls. 3. onnec he circui as shown in Fig and Fig and simulae he circuis by PSpice. Show he weform which is across he load resisor. Please aach he schemaic and simulaion resuls. 4. onnec he circui as shown in Fig and simulae he circui by PSpice. Show he weform of oupu. Please aach he schemaic and simulaion resuls. 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 311 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
12 lass: Name: Laboraory #3 Repor Suden I: Exploraion 1 (1) v bc =, =, /v bc = (2) The effec of he diode:, and he weform of dc : (3) v dc =, =, k r = v dc / = (4) The difference afer aleraion is, and he weform of dc : (5) Frequency of ripple = Hz Exploraion 2 (1) v ab =, v cb =, =, /v ab =, /v cb = (2) The weform of db : (3) v db =, =, k r = v db / = /v ab =, /v cb = (4) The weform of db : (5) Frequency of ripple = Hz Exploraion 3 (1) v bc =, =, /v bc = (2) The weform of d : (3) v bc =, =, /v bc = (4) The weform of d : (5) Frequency of ripple = Hz Exploraion 4 [onus] (1) v a =, =, v b =, =, v c =, = (2) The weform of a, b, and c : (3) =, and he weform of c : (4) The weform of a, b, and c : (5) v c =, =, and he weform of c : 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 312 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
13 Problem 1 Please prove he following equaion for he sinusoid rms 2 Problem 2 Wha are effecs on oupu erage volage and oupu ripple wih differen load resisance? onclusion 電子學實驗 ( 一 ) Elecronics Laboraory (1), 2013 p. 313 成大電機 EE, NKU, Tainan iy, Taiwan
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