SGS Environmental Monitoring Services

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1 SGS Environmental Monitoring Services Source Emission Testing

2 PRINCIPLE Stack testing is performed to measure emissions to the atmosphere from stacks or ducts Emissions include particulate matter, waste gases, fumes and vapours to the atmosphere the use of a stack or chimney Stack emissions becomes a plume in the atmosphere that slowly become diluted with the other atmospheric gases 2

3 WHY? Process environmental performance / compliance to permit levels Complaints Process design performance Data for abatement measures In all cases an accurate and defendable result is critical 3

4 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Plant acceptance testing Oil refineries Cement industry Paper mills Power generation Waste incineration Motor vehicle production Gold, platinum and aluminium refineries 4

5 BASIC PRINCIPLES (DISCONTINUOUS) A pollutant s concentration is measured by extracting a known volume from the gas stream, passing it over a filter and series of impingers while measuring the average flow rate over the sampling period The concentration and mass emission rate is then calculated based on the mass of pollutant, volume of gas sampled and average flow rate C = m/v (mg/m 3 ) Emission rate = c*flow rate (mg/hr) However we need to extract t a representative ti sample! Tests are performed in accordance to Reference Methods Methods are created as a reference in order to ensure all testing occurs under conditions that can be repeated and ensure an accurate result. Any deviation risks compromising the accuracy and/or repeatability and must be fully documented and justified in test reports 5

6 REFERENCE METHODS Symbol Name US EPA Method Sample and velocity traverses 1 Determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow 2 (type S pitot) O 2, CO 2 Gas analysis for oxygen, carbon dioxide, determination of dry molecular weight Determination of moisture content in stack gases 3(Instrumental) 4 SO 2 Sulphur dioxide 6C (Instrumental) NO x Oxides of nitrogen 7E (Instrumental) CO Carbon monoxide 10 (Instrumental) PM Particulate t matter 5 SO 2 Sulphur dioxide 8 F - Total flourides 13B TRS Total reduced sulphurs Dioxins and Furans 16A 23A TOC Total organic compounds 25A HCl, HF Hydrogen chloride, fluoride 26A 6

7 CONTINUOUS SAMPLING Dedicated mobile Laboratories Continuos O 2, CO 2, CO, NO x, SO 2, N 2 O, NH 3, CH 4, TOC Rack mounted monitors eg. Horiba / FID 7

8 1. Traverse points PROCEDURE (DISCONTINUOUS) Calculate the number and location of traverse points for velocity and particulate sampling, based on upstream/downstream distances Calculate the location of the traverse points 2. Determine the appropriate nozzle size Velocity and stack pressure measurements are performed by a type "S" Pitot tube. The pitot is inserted into the stack at each of the traverse points and faced into the gas flow. 3. Stack gas molecular weight is determined instrumentally based on the concentrations of stack gas (CO 2, O 2, CO, N 2 ) 4. The percentage water vapour in the gas stream is calculated based on the volume of water collected in the impingers and sample volume Representative sampling requires that the velocity of the sample passing into the nozzle must be as close as possible to the velocity of the gas stream. When the velocities are the same, the sampling is isokinetic 8

9 TYPICAL SAMPLING TRAIN Part Function Nozzle Gas extraction ti point: at same velocity of process gas Probe Filter Impingers Pump Gas meter Pitot tube To reach point of sample in the duct To remove the particulates To remove target gas by chemical reaction To withdraw the gas from the bulk stream through the impingers To precisely measure the gas flow and hence determine the total volume sampled To measure the gas velocity 9

10 PROCEDURE (CONTD) COLD T <20 C No water! HOT T >110 C Hot section: keep water in gas phase, collect dust Cold section: keep water in liquid phase, collect water and dtarget tgas species 10

11 CASE STUDY CONFIDENTIAL Location: Europe, Africa, South America, China Source: Kiln Emission Testing Objective: Regulatory compliance Process and pollution abatement efficiencies Lafarge inter-company comparative studies Scope of testing: Particulate matter (dust) Metals Mercury Dioxins and Furans Methodologies: Local Methods EPA Method 5 EN EPA 29 EPA 23A Gaseous emissions Results Standardized sampling, analytical and reporting methodologies allowing comparison of results from different plants around the world 11

12 VENT EMISSION TESTING Emissions from Petroleum Refinery atmospheric vents represent a significant ifi source of VOC emission i resulting in: 1. Impact on health and safety of workers 2. Loss of product and PROFIT 3. Escaping VOCs contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and ground level ozone = SMOG 4. Increased odour emissions Client: Petroleum Refinery Project Dates: Title: VOC Abatement and Recovery Project Significant source of VOC and odour pollution SGS was appointed to act as the technical consultant to the refinery to perform VOC monitoring on all process vents in an attempt to estimate emissions and quantify product losses The results of testing have initiated a number of vapour recovery projects resulting in lower emissions and increased savings 12

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