Evolution of Wireless Communications Javan Erfanian IEEE Communications Society Lisbon - March 2011

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1 Evolution of Wireless Communications Javan Erfanian IEEE Communications Society Lisbon - March 2011 IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

2 The Picture Rich Communication / Messaging Tele- Health, Education, Transaction Tele-Work Business, Government Sharing Social Networking Communities Mobility Mobile Internet Vehicular & Proximity Networking Mobile Multimedia Apps, Info / News, Downloads Entertainment / Games Personalized User s App / Device Management Home Networking Smart User Spaces What fields are involved in enabling this?! Telecommunication, Radio, Optics, Computing, software / hardware, electronics, power, multimedia, & many more Future?! IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

3 Evolution? Innovations? Challenges? Future? Intention Context User Space - Experience Service Architecture Quality Of Experience Coding / Modulation Spectral Efficiency Receivers Antennas Spectrum Networks Packet Core Evolution Processing OS SW/ HW Memory Microelectronics Power Management IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

4 telecom.com Wireless Technology Evolution 1985 Today Future? 2010 NEXT?! Speed, response time, openness, experience, efficiency, Future Internet Mobility, simplicity, trust, information & content-centric User device reconfigurability Heterogeneous & Multi-modal Sensors & Machine-to-Machine Operational Efficiency Self X Cooperative & Cognitive Understand, decide, adapt / train Spectrum Flexibility IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

5 Technology Elements To Meet Design Goals - Example Design Goals Rich experience & high performance Application (personal, local, widearea mobility; enterprise / campus, home) Connectivity, coverage, roaming Universality & ecosystem richness Efficiency & costeffectiveness Access Technology Elements Multiple Access mechanism Coding & Modulation Radio channel bandwidth Dynamic resource allocation / adaptation Low latency for real-time IP (e.g. VoIP) Spectrum band Advanced antenna technologies (e.g. MIMO) Others IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

6 Wireless Access Technology Advancement Design Goals Rich experience & high performance Application (personal, local, widearea mobility; enterprise / campus, home) Connectivity, coverage, roaming Universality & ecosystem richness Efficiency & costeffectiveness Access Technology Elements Multiple Access mechanism Coding & Modulation Radio channel bandwidth Dynamic resource allocation Low latency for real-time IP (e.g. VoIP) Spectrum Advanced antenna technologies Others LTE OFDMA / SC-FDMA Higher-Order Flexible 1.4 to 20 MHz Link Adaptation Several milliseconds in user-plane Flexible, FDD/TDD MIMO HARQ FFR Antenna Systems embms, etc. IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

7 Mobile Technologies - 2G to Beyond 3G IS 95A (CDMA) 1x (CDMA2000) DO (CDMA2000) IS-136 (TDMA) UMTS R99 (WCDMA) HSPA (WCDMA) LTE GSM (TDMA) GPRS (TDMA) EDGE (TDMA) TD-SCDMA PDC (TDMA) iden (TDMA) Mobile WiMax Evolution IEEE Wireless Family 802.X * Not all technologies or transitions are shown IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

8 How is this architecture & experience evolving? Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual Dynamic Adaptive Re-configurable Virtual IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

9 3G Examples & Evolving STEP 1: Channel quality feedback (CQI) HSPA & DO dynamically respond to link conditions to STEP 2: Scheduling send more data at shorter time. The idea is simple: i.e., selection of the UE for transmission STEP 3: Adaptive modulation and coding, i.e., selection of transport format Channel Quality STEP 4: User data transmission STEP 5: ACK/NACK feedback Node B 4 UE 2 Scheduling UE 1 Adaptive coding / modulation Link Adaptation Scheduling Rate selection based on radio link conditions IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

10 QAM, MIMO, OFDM, MIMO / OFDM (Source: 3GPP) IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

11 Research, Innovations, & Technology Evolution Paradigms User / Application Intention / Expectation Experience (& Cost) Context Virtualization - Abstraction Adaptation Ubiquity Knowledge-based Efficiency IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

12 LTE / EPC Architecture Simplified to a flatter architecture with an Evolved Packet Core and Evolved- UTRAN (e-nodeb) HSPA Access LTE Access MME MSC SGSN S-GW HSPA Core GGSN Evolved Packet Core P-GW Circuit Switched Services IP Networks (IMS, Internet, ) MME Mobility Management Entity S-GW Serving Gateway P-GW PDN gateway Trusted Access (e.g. cdma2000, WiMax WLAN IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

13 Frequency Resource Block (12 x 15 KHz = 180 khz) Channel edge Resource block Channel edge LTE Physical Layer Transmission Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB] Active Resource Blocks DC carrier (downlink only) Subcarrier (15 KHz) Resource Element OFDMA (DL) or SC-FDMA symbol (UL) Time (I)DFT (Inverse) Discrete Fourier Transform IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

14 LTE Transmission, Cont d S to P Scrambling Modulation Mapping Pre-coding Subcarrie r Mapping M- IDFT OFDM RF Add Cyclic Prefix Pulse Shaping D/A RF Downlink LTE A/D CP Removal M- DF T Subcarrie r De- Mapping Equalization P to S Detection S to P N- DFT Subcarrie r Mapping N < M M- IDFT SC- FDMA P to S RF RF Uplink LTE S to P M- DF T Subcarrier De- Mapping N- IDFT P to S Transmitter Channel Receiver (I)DFT (Inverse) Discrete Fourier Transform S Serial P - Parallel Frequency domain equalization (using DFT) with lower complexity for broadband channels SC-FDMA used for uplink IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

15 LTE Ecosystem Evolution At A Glance Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q LTE Global Introduction LTE Rollout Full LTE / HSPA Ecosystem Continued Global LTE Trials LTE data only Generally multimode multiband LTE Handsets LTE Voice & Data LTE bands Operational Efficiency Spectrum Auctions Self-Organizing Networks (SON) IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

16 Data Traffic Growth Capacity Modeling Irregular Behaviour Cost Capacity Enhancements Network-Level Application Optimization Operational Efficiency Enable Save Energy IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

17 Operational Excellence Spectral Efficiency Adaptive Technologies Adaptive Resource Partitioning Dynamic Resource Allocation Flat & Simplified Architecture Granular Traffic Management - Knowledge-Based & Policy-Based Automation & Self-Organizing IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

18 Operational Efficiency - Motivation Configure A New Network Element Without major Impact Automatic Neighbour Cell Relations Balance Load Between Cells Dynamically Optimize Capacity & Coverage --- & Performance Remove Coverage Holes & Reduce Interference Dynamically Save Energy When Unloaded / Under-loaded In Real Time Diagnostics & Healing Only Where & When Needed Self Organizing IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

19 Mobile Device A Platform Look & Feel Interaction & Usability Personalization & Adaptability Mobile Internet (App / Software) Platform! Communication Computing & OS power Presentation CE Sensing IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

20 telecom.com Long Term View 1985 Today Future? IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

21 Nanotechnology Electronics & Processing Power / Energy, Memory, Display, Sensing & Interaction, Peripheral Structures Surface Properties & Significance of Mechanical properties MATERIAL Light, Rigid / Stiff & yet Tough, Flexible Self-Cleaning / Healing & Assembly Properties Adhesive Properties Optimize e.g. Strength, stiffness and elasticity High Power Reconfigurable Surface Grid Communication IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

22 Nanomaterial Nanocomposites have these prospects Strength & Toughness Light Structures Easier Processing Improved thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties Surface qualities Energy harvesting In addition to enabling new possibilities Range of Applications! Example Challenges! CNT High aspect ratio, low density & lightweight, high tensile strength, multifunctional, flexible, lateral size, others IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

23 End-to-end / cross-layer Research User Experience Applications & Services Service Architecture / Enablers Core network Access (Mobile / Nomadic/Fixed) User Terminal Future of User Interaction Definition of Value Concept of Service in Future Identity, security, charging Service Framework Abstraction Creation, Access, Delivery IP Networking Ad-hoc Networks Heterogeneous Networks Sensing Broadband Wireless Spectrum Management, Cognitive Seamless Access Intelligent Radio Processing, power, memory, display, OS, nano-engineering, robotics, neural, bio-engineering.. IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

24 Building The Future Together! Research Innovation Standardization Partnerships Academia Industry Global / Regional / Local Bodies IEEE IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

25 Thank You! IEEE Communications Society DSP J Erfanian March

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