# Earth Systems Quarter 1 Credit Recovery Overview

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1 Earth Systems Quarter 1 Credit Recovery Overview Reference textbooks: Glencoe Earth Science (2008) ISBN: AND Glencoe Ecology Module (2008) ISBN: Pre-Assessment 3 English versions 1 Spanish version Answer keys Modules 10 Assignments-including video clips from Khan Academy 3 Labs 1 Answer Key document that includes all assignments and labs Final Assessment 3 English versions Answer keys Materials List For lab work. Most materials are re-useable, but there are a few consumable items that will need replacing. paper, colored pencils, ruler, drawing compass plastic wrap, two glass jars, two thermometers, lamp or very sunny window ledge pencil, paper, tape Instructions: This credit recovery module integrates both textbook and online resources. While there are no points for the work, if a student doesn t get at least 80% correct, they will probably not be prepared for the assessment. Students should fix mistakes or redo assignments in order to prepare for the assessment. It is recommended that a student do the vocabulary for each chapter first, to prepare for reading the chapter. Watching the Khan Academy video clips will reinforce the reading and give some examples. The Guided Reading Worksheets will help students focus as they read each of the assigned chapters. At the conclusion of the review worksheets are some labs that can be done at home or at school. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

2 1: Chapter 23: The Earth Directions: Complete the following statements. Write the correct word on the blank provided. Earth s Formation: Earth s Seasons: Earth s Tilt: axis seasons revolves rotates equinox solstice elliptical spherical magnetic field 1. Earth is in shape, with a slight bulge at the equator. 2. The day when the Sun reaches the greatest distance north or south of the equator is the. 3. Earth turns on its once every 24 h. 4. Earth around the Sun in a(n) orbit. 5. When the Sun is directly above Earth's equator, we refer to it as the. 6. Earth is tilted on its axis at a 23.5-degree angle creating a short period of climate change commonly called. 7. Scientists hypothesize that the movement of material inside Earth's core and Earth's rotation generate a(n). 8. Earth, creating day and night. Directions: Define the terms revolve and rotate in your own words and give an example of each. 9. Revolve: Example: 10. Rotate: Example: Directions: Explain how the tilt of Earth's axis causes seasons. 11. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

3 2: Chapter 23: The Sun Earth Moon System Scale of Earth & Sun: Earth 1. People used to think that Earth was flat and at the of the universe. 2. Earth is now known to be a round, three-dimensional. 3. imaginary vertical line around which Earth spins 4. the spinning of Earth around its axis that causes day and night 5. Earth has a field with north and south poles. 6. Magnetic imaginary line joining Earth's magnetic poles 7. Earth's magnetic axis does not with its rotational axis. 8. The of magnetic poles slowly changes over time. Causes of seasons 9. Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun 10. Earth's orbit is an, or elongated, closed curve. 11. Because the Sun is not centered in the ellipse, the between Earth and the Sun changes during the year. 12. Earth's causes seasons. 13. The hemisphere tilted toward the Sun receives more hours than the hemisphere tilted away from the Sun. 14. The period of sunlight is one reason summer is warmer than winter. 15. Earth's tilt causes the Sun's radiation to strike the hemispheres at different. 16. The hemisphere tilted toward the Sun receives more total than the hemisphere tilted away from the Sun. 17. In the hemisphere tilted toward the Sun, the Sun appears in the sky and the radiation strikes Earth more directly. 18. the day when the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the 19. solstice occurs June 21 or 22 in the northern hemisphere. 20. solstice occurs December 21 or 22 in the northern hemisphere. 21. the day when the Sun is directly over Earth's equator Daylight and nighttime hours are all over the world. 22. equinox occurs on March 20 or 21 in the northern hemisphere. 23. equinox occurs on September 22 or 23 in the northern hemisphere. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

4 3: Chapter 24: The Inner Planets Directions: Write the names of the inner planets as headings in the chart in the order of their position from the Sun. Then fill in the chart using information from your textbook Size and Composition Atmosphere Temperature Surface features Moons (number/names) Space probes Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

5 Chapter 24: Concept Review Directions: Answer the questions in the space provided 1. How are Venus and Earth the same or different? 2. Compare similarities and differences of Pluto to the other outer planets. How might have these similarities and differences led scientists to say that Pluto is not a planet? 3. State the most accepted scientific hypothesis about how the solar system was formed. 4. Describe the origin and structure of a comet. 5. List evidence that large amounts of water were once present on Mars. 6. What is unique about Uranus? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

6 5: Chapter 25: Section 2-The Sun Directions: The diagram shows interior and outer features of the Sun. Write the name of each feature on the lines provided in the diagram. Directions: Answer the questions in complete sentences. 7. How can the Sun be classified? 8. How is the energy of the Sun produced? 9. How does our Sun differ from most other main sequence stars? 10. How do CMEs (coronal mass ejections) affect Earth? 11. How are sunspots related to prominences and solar flares? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

7 6: Chapter 25 Section 3: Evolution of Stars Directions: Fill in the blank with the correct word. You may use your textbook to help you. 1. A is a large cloud of dust and gas that becomes a star. 2. A graph that shows the relationship between a star's absolute magnitude and temperature is an. 3. A star that is a has exhausted its supply of hydrogen. 4. The of atoms powers the Sun and other stars. 5. The temperature and brightness of stars are indicated by their. 6. About 90 percent of the stars, including our Sun, are stars. 7. A is produced when the outer core of a star explodes after the core collapses. 8. The hottest, brightest stars are and white. 9. Medium hot and bright stars like our Sun are in color. 10. When a star has no fuel left and its outer layers escape into space, it is a. 11. As heavier elements are formed by fusion, a massive star expands into a. 12. When a collapsed core becomes so dense only neutrons can exist there, a is formed. 13. A is so dense that nothing, including light, can escape its gravity field. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

8 7: Chapter 25: Galaxies and the Universe Big Bang Theory Intro: Directions: Use the terms below to complete the following sentences. Milky Way Local Group Doppler Shift Elliptical One trillion Steady state theory Big Bang Theory Clouds of Magellan Galaxy Andromeda Cluster Spiral Oscillating model Irregular 1. The two types of galaxies are barred and normal. 2. A is a group of galaxies. 3. galaxies have many different shapes and are usually smaller and less common than other types of galaxies. 4. An elliptical galaxy about 2.9 million light-years away is in the constellation of. 5. Galaxies shaped like footballs are galaxies. 6. Two irregular galaxies called the orbit the Milky Way. 7. A is a large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity. 8. The is an explanation for the formation of the universe. 9. The solar system in which we live is in the Galaxy. 10. The Milky Way Galaxy may contain. 11. The Andromeda Galaxy is a member of the. 12. The causes changes in the light coming from distant stars and galaxies. 13. One model of the origin of the universe is the, which proposes that the universe was always as it is now. 14. Another model of the origin of the universe is the, which believes that the universe expands and contracts in a regular pattern. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

9 8: Chapter 25: Section 3 Evolution of Stars & Section 4 Galaxies & the Universe Main Sequence: White dwarf: Directions: Identify the stages in the life cycle of an average star. Use the words below to fill in the blanks white dwarf nebula giant main sequence 1. Star begins in a cloud of gas and dust. 2. Star continues to use hydrogen for energy; heat from fusion causes pressure that balances the pull of gravity. 3. Star's core is exhausted of hydrogen; its outer layers expand and cool. 4. Star's core is exhausted of helium; its outer layers escape into space leaving only the core; the core contracts, or gets smaller. Directions: Identify the type of galaxy shown in each illustration. Use the words to fill in the blanks below Irregular spiral elliptical Directions: Answer the questions below on the lines provided 8. In which galaxy is our solar system? 9. What is the name for the change in a star's spectrum when it moves away from Earth? 10. What is the theory that explains how the universe began with an enormous explosion? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

10 9: Chapter 25: Review Stars and Galaxies Concept Review 1. Sequence the colors of stars by temperature, labeling the hottest star #1 blue yellow red 2. Identify the sequence of the evolution of stars by labeling the stages. Use 1 to label nebula. nebula white dwarf giant main sequence star Directions: Write the word yes in front of any characteristic of the Milky Way. Write the word no in front of any characteristic that does not match the Milky Way. 3. spiral galaxy 4. member of the Local Group million light years from the galaxy in Andromeda 6. more than 400 billion stars 7. elliptical galaxy ,000 light years in diameter Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 9. How is the Sun different than other stars? How is the sun similar to other stars? 10. How is the Big Bang Theory supported by the observed Doppler shift of galaxies? 11. How does the Sun produce energy? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

11 Recognizing Cause and Effect 10: Chapter 25 Practice Test Directions: Identify the cause and effect given in each sentence by writing C for cause and E for effect in the blanks. 1. a. An object moves away from you. b. Its wavelengths get longer and shift to red on a spectrum. 2. a. A supernova is produced. b. A star's core collapses and its outer portion explodes. Sequencing 3. List the color of the stars according to their temperature. List the hottest color first. 4. Put the following events in the order that they would happen. Label the first event with #1, the second with #2 and the last with #3 a. High-energy particles emitted by solar flares interact with Earth's atmosphere near the polar regions. b. Gases near a sunspot brighten up suddenly and erupt as solar flares. c. Earth's atmosphere radiates lights called aurora. Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

12 Directions: Use the diagram to help you answer the following questions. 5. Are giants hotter than white dwarfs? 6. Is Antares or Vega hotter than the Sun? 7. What type of star is Betelgeuse? 8. Is the Sun brighter than a white dwarf? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

13 Lab #1: Comparing and Contrasting Atmospheric Gases Materials paper, colored pencils, ruler, drawing compass Background Information Earth s early atmosphere was about 92% carbon dioxide, 5% nitrogen, 0% oxygen, and 3% other gases. Today s modern atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, including carbon dioxide. 1. Make a circle graph (pie graph) of each atmosphere (early and modern). 2. How are the graphs different?. Analyze 3. Why did the percentage of oxygen change? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

14 Lab #2: Greenhouse Effect Materials plastic wrap, two glass jars, two thermometers, lamp or very sunny window ledge Procedure How can you measure the effect of a closed container on temperature? 1. Carefully place a thermometer into each of two glass jars. Cover the opening of one jar with plastic wrap. Place both jars either in direct sunlight or under a strong light source. 2. Observe the temperature of both thermometers when you start. Check the temperatures every 5 minutes for a total of 20 minutes. Record your results in a data table. Tip: Place jars and thermometers in a position so that thermometers can be read without touching the jars or disturbing them in any way. Time 0min 5min 10min 15min 20min Temperature Jar 1 Temperature Jar 2 Inferring Compare how the temperature changed in the uncovered jar and the covered jar. 1. What do you think is the reason for any difference in the temperatures of the two jars? How is this jar lab similar to the Earth and its atmosphere? 2. Which jar is a better model of Venus s atmosphere? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

15 Lab #3: Why Does the Milky Way Look Hazy? Materials pencil, paper, tape, lamp Procedure 1. Using the point of a pencil, carefully poke at least 20 small holes close together in a sheet of white paper. 2. Tape the paper to a chalkboard or dark-colored wall (if no dark wall is available, use black bulletin board paper as a background). Or have someone hold the paper in front of a bright lamp. 3. Stand a foot in front of the paper, and look at the stars. Now go to the other side of the room and look at the paper. From the far side of the room, what do the dots look like? Can you see individual dots? Think It Over 1. How is looking at the paper from the far side of the room like trying to see many very distant stars that are close together? 2. How does your model compare to the photograph of the Milky Way below? Earth Systems Q1 Module-Glencoe, adapted with permission

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