Fusion: Creating a Star on Earth. Produced by General Atomics in Conjunction with Schools in the San Diego area

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2 Fusion: Creating a Star on Earth Produced by General Atomics in Conjunction with Schools in the San Diego area 2

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4 Why is Fusion Important? 4

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9 Alternative Energy Sources Hydroelectric Power Wind Geothermal Solar 9

10 Fossil Fuel Energy Sources - Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Coal Abundant Burns dirty Causes acid rain and air pollution Oil Flexible fuel source Finite supply with many derivitives Causes air pollution Transportable Natural Gas Burns cleanly Finite supply Transportable Dangerous to handle 10

11 Energy Source Advantages and Disadvantages Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages Fission Clean, no CO 2 Waste disposal is difficult (Nuclear Power) Does not produce Safety concerns immediate pollution Hydroelectric Clean, no CO 2 Dam construction destroys habitats Geographically limited Wind Clean, no CO 2 Huge numbers of windmills required for adequate power generation Geographically limited Geothermal Clean, no CO 2 Geographically limited Solar Clean, no CO 2 Huge number of solar cells required for adequate power generation Geographically limited 11

12 World Fossil Reserves Amount of Fossil Fuels Millions of Years Hundreds of Years

13 Fusion Energy The fossil fuel era is almost over. If we continue to burn fossil fuels for energy, they will last only another few hundred years. At our present rate of use, experts predict a shortfall in less than fifty years. Energy consumption (billion barrels of oil equiv. per year) Assumes world population stablizes at 10 billion, consuming at 2/3 U.S rate World energy consumption Shortfall must be supplied by alternative sources 100 Energy available (fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission) Now Shortfall begins Year (A.D.) 13

14 Fossil Fuel is Environmentally Costly 1000 MW electric plant It provides electricity for 1 million U.S. people (1.4 kw/person) We need at least 3 plants this size for San Diego We need at least 30 for California A coal plant this size consumes 8,600 tons of coal per day. This produces 32,000 tons of CO 2 per day This is 64 pounds of CO 2 for every American per day 14

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17 In a typical fission process used as a source of energy, a neutron strikes a uranium nucleus causing it to split into fragments. As in the fusion process, there is a difference in mass that is released as energy Neutrons n+u fission fragments + neutrons + energy 17

18 Fission Atom + ENERGY Large Atom Atom 18

19 Fusion Atom + ENERGY Atom Large Atom 19

20 Fusion vs. Fission Advantages and Disadvantages Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages Fission Clean, no CO 2 Waste disposal is difficult (Nuclear Power) Does not produce Safety concerns immediate pollution Fusion Inexhaustible supply of Huge research and water-the fuel of fusion development costs Fuel is accessible Reactor vessel core worldwide becomes radioactive Clean Fusion reactors are inherently safe, they cannot explode or overheat 20

21 Comparison of Long-Term Energy Sources Resources Environment Safety Cost Coal Large Very Dirty Good Moderate Today s Fission Small Waste Concerns Active Control Moderate Advanced Fission Large Waste Concerns Passive Moderate to High Solar Fusion Infinite Infinite Very Clean Clean Excellent Inherent High? 21

22 So Why Aren t Fusion Power Plants Here Now? 22

23 e 2 orbitals with 2 electrons each Be n p p n p n n n p e e Protons = Atomic Number 4 Beryllium 9 e 4 Protons 5 Neutrons 4 Electrons Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass 23

24 Fusion Energy Plasma is sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter Cold Solid:Ice Warm Liquid: Water Hot Gas: Steam Hotter Plasma 24

25 Plasma Makes up The Sun & Stars 25

26 Normal Atoms 26

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28 Like Charges Repel 28

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30 Hydrogen 30

31 Hydrogen = 1H 1 Deuterium = 1H 2 Tritium = 1H 3 1 H1 1 H2 1 H3 31

32 Thermonuclear Reactions in the Sun 1H H 1 1 H e 0 In the first reaction, 2 protons combine to form deuterium and a positron. One of the protons is converted into a neutron and a positon proton neutron positron 1H H 1 2 He 3 + (gamma) radiation In the 2nd reaction a proton + deuterium unite to form the light isotope of helium, 2 He 3 2He He 3 2He H H1 The first two reactions must occur twice for the 3rd reaction to occur 32

33 Summary of Solar Fusion Reactions P + P D + e+ + Energy D + P 2He 3 + gamma radiation + Energy 2He 3 + 2He 3 2He 4 + P + P + Energy 33

34 But the Potential Payoff is Enormous n He D T E=mc 2 The fraction of mass lost is just 38 parts out of 10,000 Nevertheless, the fusion energy released from just 1 gram of DT equals the energy from about 2400 gallons of oil 34

35 E = mc 2 Einstein s equation that equates energy and mass E = Energy m = Mass c = Speed of Light (3 x 108 m/sec) Example: If a 1 gram raisin was converted completely into energy E = 1 gram x c2 = (10-3 kg) ( 3 x 108 m/sec) 2 = 9 x joules This would be equivalent to 10,000 tons of TNT! 35

36 Energy Release E = mc Hydrogen Deuterium Extra mass per nucleon Tritium Lithium Uranium Atomic mass number 36

37 Fusion Energy Input We give kinetic energy (temperature) to hydrogen Energy Output We get back 2000 times more energy than we put in 37

38 COAL OIL FISSION FUSION ~2,000,000 TONNES (21,010 RAILCAR LOADS) ~1,300,000 TONNES (10,000,000 BARRELS) ~30 TONNES UO 2 (ONE RAILCAR LOAD) ~0.6 TONNES D (ONE PICKUP TRUCK) 38

39 Abundant Energy From Sea Water 50 Cups Sea Water or 2 Tons of Coal Thimble of 2 H (D) Deuterium 20 Tons of Coal 39

40 Reduced Waste Products Power Source Coal Fission Fusion: Today s Materials Advanced Materials Total Waste (cubic meters) 10,000 (ashes) High-Level RAD Waste MW(e) Power Plant - 30 year Lifetime 40

41 Heat Exchanger Neutron Heat Exchange Material Coolant Steam Turbine Electrical Generator 41

42 Reaction Ignition Temperature Output Energy Fuel Product (millions of C) (kev) (kev) D + T 4He + n P P P n n n n n n P ,600 D + 3He P n n P Pn 4He + p P n n P P ,300 3He + n D + D P n P P n n ~4,000 n P T + p P n n P ~4,000 42

43 Deuteron Energetic Neutron Fusion Reaction Triton Helium Nucleus 43

44 Fusion Represents an Inexhaustible Energy Supply for Mankind Fusion fuels deuterium (D) and tritium (T) are hydrogen isotopes 3/4 oz. heavy water (D 2 0) 3/4 oz. of heavy water has the same energy content as 13,000 gallons of oil for D-D reaction, or 32,000 gallons of oil for D-T reaction 1 barrel (42 gal.) water (H 2 0) Tritium is made from n + Li T + He Lithium is plentiful both in the earth s crust and oceans 45

45 Methods to Heat Deuterium-Tritium Fuel Compressing the fuel Internal Electric Current Neutral Particles Microwaves Lasers 46

46 Fusion can be accomplished in Three Different Ways Magnetic Confinement Nucleus + Magnetic Field - Electron Intense Energy Beams Fuel Pellet SUN Inertial Confinement Gravitational Confinement 47

47 High Power Lasers can Deliver the Intensity Required for Fusion Ignition 2 watts of sunlight About 100 watts/cm2 300 C Over one hundred trillion watts of laser power 100 to 1000 trillion watts/cm2 Tens of millions degrees C (10 kev) 48

48 Inertial Confinement Fusion Concept Our ultimate goal is to create a short lived, microminiature star which will release energy by thermonuclear fusion in the same manner that our sun and the stars produce energy. Heating of ablator DT Fuel Use high power laser to heat outer surface of pellet Ablation and compression Outward streaming ablator material produces an inward directed, rocket-like force that compresses the DT fuel 49

49 Inertial Confinement Fusion Concept (continued) Compression and heating Careful tailoring of implosion produces compression to several 1000X and 100,000,000 C Ignition and Thermonuclear burn Thermonuclear burn of the DT fuel will produce a fusion yield many times the input driver energy 50

50 Toroidal Magnetic Confinement of Plasma 51

51 Typical Plasmas Density n e (m -3 ) Temperature T e (ev) K Interstellar Solar Corona Thermonuclear Laser Air Density /

52 Characteristics of a Plasma Particles are charged Conducts electricity Can be constrained magnetically 53

53 Unconfined Confined Ion Electrons Magnetic Field Lines 54

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55 Where are the Current Major Fusion Energy Research Projects? 56

56 List of Major Programs/Devices Worldwide JET from the European Community JT-60U in Japan NOVA at Lawrence Livermore Labs in California TFTR at PPPL in Princeton, New Jersey DIII-D at General Atomics in San Diego, CA 57

57 NOVA Machine Used Inertial Confinement (Has Not Proved as Successful as Magnetic Confinement) 58

58 TFTR is located at PPPL Princeton, New Jersey 59

59 DIII-D is Located at General Atomics San Diego, CA 60

60 ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Cooperative effort by Europe, Japan, U.S. and Russia Conceptual Design Activity completed Engineering Design Activity is underway Three sites: San Diego, U.S.A., Garching, Germany and Naka, Japan Detailed engineering and protoype testing Cost of $300 M per party over 6 years Decision to proceed with construction will be made in

61 ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) 30 meters diameter 30 meters tall 62

62 ITER 63

63 Ion Temperature (M C) Fusion Experiments Now Approach Ignition Conditions 500 Q = 1 Non-Maxwellian TFTR 90 JT 60U 92 JT 60U 93 TFTR 88 Fusion Process TFTR 93 DT TFTR 92 JT 60U 92 Demonstrated TFTR 88 Q = 1 TFTR 87 JET 89 JT 60U 92 JET 88 JET 91 DT DIII-D 90 TFTR 86 DIII D 93 JET 91 DIII-D 89 JET 89 JET 89 DIII-D 89 DIII D 91 DIII-D 89 JET 88 JET 88 DIII-D 89 DIII-D 89 DIII-D 89 JET 86 ALC-C 83 TFTR 86 Fusion as an Electrical Source Q = n e (0) τ (m 3 E s) Confinement Quality (Number of particles per cubic meter confined for one second) 64

64 What Progress Has Been Made in Magnetic Fusion? FUSION POWER MW th 1, ITER POWER PLANT kw th W th PLT PDX TFTR JET JT 60U TFTR JET / TFTR DIII-D DIII ALCATOR C Achieved (DD) Achieved (DT) Projected (DT) HOUSE LIGHT BULB PLT PDX JET DIII & DIII-D Princeton Large Tokamak Princeton Divertor Experiment Joint European Torus General Atomics Tokamak Experiments TFTR ALCATOR C ITER JT 60U Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Japanese Tokamak Experiment 65

65 World Energy Resources Indicate New Sources of Clean Energy Must be Found ANNUAL USE 0.3 Q/year Oil Fossil Uranium Lithium Deuterium ,000 7,600 16,000,000 In units of Q or 1018 BTU 66

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