Electromagnetic Radiation

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1 Forms of Energy There are many types of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is energy that results from position, such as the energy in water going over a dam. Electrical energy powers your computer and the lights in this room. In general, all energy is the potential to do work or give off heat. This unit discusses forms of energy as they relate to chemical systems. Outline Electromagnetic Radiation Heat and Work Chemical Energy Homework Electromagnetic Radiation Energy from the Sun Nearly all (99.97%) of the energy we have on Earth comes from the sun. This amounts to an average of 340 joules/second for every square meter of the Earth's surface. The fusion reactions in the core of our sun produce its energy. Below is a typical fusion reaction. An isotope of hydrogen, deuterium or 2 H, combines with another isotope of hydrogen, tritium or 3 H, to form helium and a neutron. Remember that the joule (J) is the standard unit of energy. We can convert any other unit of energy into joules or kilojoules (kj). There are many online conversions programs to help with the calculations. For example 1 joule is equal to 1 (kilogram)(meter) 2 /(seconds) 2. Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 1!

2 The sun, like any other hot object, releases its energy in discrete "rays" that have some properties of particles and some properties of waves. We call it electromagnetic radiation. Visible light is a small part of the total electromagnetic energy spectrum. Most graphs of energy distributions have a similar shape. Notice that radiation in the visible light range is close to the average energy for the solar spectrum but there is quite a bit of radiation more and less energetic than this. You radiate energy, too. The radiation from a body of approximately 310 K is in the infrared range. Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is the type of energy that encompasses light, heat, and x-rays. It can be described using a sinusoidal wave model, where the properties of the radiation depend on the wavelength, frequency, and other parameters of the wave. For some purposes, it makes more sense to describe the energy as a stream of light particles called photons, where the energy of the photons is proportional to the frequency of the radiation. Wave properties of electromagnetic radiation: Amplitude (A): The height of the wave Wavelength (λ): The distance between two crests of the wave Crest and trough: The highest and lowest points, respectively, of a wave Speed of light ( c ): The velocity of radiation as it travels through a vacuum. This quantity is the same for all forms of electromagnetic radiation, from x-rays to light to radio waves, and is constant within a particular transportation medium.the speed of light in vacuum is x 10 8 m/s. The speed of light in air is only 0.03% slower, and c in either medium is usually just rounded off to 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. Frequency (ν): The number of waves that pass a fixed point per second Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 2!

3 Period (T): The number of seconds it takes for a wave to pass a fixed point ν = 1/T - The frequency of the wave is the reciprocal of the period. λ ν = c (or ν = c/λ) - the product of frequency and wavelength is the speed of light. Alternatively, the frequency of a wave is inversely proportional to the velocity. E = hν = hc/λ, where h is the Planck constant, x The energy of the radiation is equal to the Plank constant multiplied by the frequency of the radiation. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Although all waves of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of light, different types of waves have vastly differing wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. The shorter the wavelength of the radiation, the greater the frequency and the larger the energy. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from gamma (γ) radiation, which has the shortest wavelength, highest frequency, and greatest energy, to radio waves, which has the longest wavelength and lowest frequency and energy. Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 3!

4 Ultraviolet light (UV) is divided into three regions: UV A, wavelength = nm UV B, wavelength = nm UV C, wavelength = < 280 nm Visible light is between 750 nm (red) and 400 nm (violet). Energy = Heat + Work Any time we consider energy changes, we must think about the direction of energy transfer between the chemical system and the surroundings. When energy in any form goes into the chemical system (increasing its total energy) the energy change is a positive number. When energy is lost from the system (total energy decreases, becomes more stable), the energy change is a negative number. Work What is work? (No, studying chemistry is fun!) work = force x distance When we discuss work in chemical systems, we relate the work done on the system (w) to changes in pressure (P) and volume (V). At constant pressure: w = -P V If pressure is in units of atmospheres and volume is in liters, the work term will have units of literatmospheres (L atm). This can be converted to joules as follows: 1 J = = x 10-3 L atm Imagine that a quantity of air in a balloon is our initial state. If we supply an external force by squeezing the balloon, we decrease its volume. We've added energy to the system in this way. Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 4!

5 In most chemical reactions the energy change associated with heat loss or gain is much greater than the work energy. The work done by or to a chemical system is important in: 1. gas phase reactions where the number of product molecules is different than the number of reactant molecules, or 2. when there is a change in phase between gas and liquid. Temperature Temperature and heat are different quantities. The temperature of a material is a physical property that we can measure with a thermometer or thermocouple. A thermometer relies on the regular change of volume of a liquid, either alcohol or mercury, with temperature to determine the temperature of some other material. Temperature is related to the AVERAGE kinetic energy of the molecules or atoms in the material. The kinetic energy of molecules includes: 1. translation; movement through a fluid (gas or liquid) 2. vibration; stretches and bends of the molecule's bonds 3. rotations of the molecule The kinetic energy of all atoms or molecules in a material can be represented by a distribution function. In the graph at right you can see 4 curves. The area under each of the curves represents the total population of molecules in a sample of material. At the lowest temperature, T 1, the range of kinetic energy values for the molecules in the sample is narrow so most of the molecules have energies close to the average kinetic energy of the sample. As the temperature increases, the range broadens. At temperature T 3, the average kinetic energy is higher than the average kinetic energy at temperatures T 1 and T 2 and lower than the average kinetic energy of the sample at temperature T 4. However, some of the Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 5!

6 molecules in the sample have energies below the averages of T 1 and T 2. Others have energies even greater than the average of the sample at T 4. There are 3 common temperature scales. For all calculations involving thermodynamics, use the Kelvin scale for temperature. Of course, either Celsius or Kelvin is fine for T. 1. Farenheit Water freezes at 32 deg F and boils at 212 deg F (at 1 atm). 2. Celsius or centigrade Water freezes at 0 deg C and boils at 100 deg C (at 1 atm). (T deg C x 9/5) + 32 = T deg F 3. Kelvin This is the absolute scale. At 0 K, molecular motion is zero. T K = T deg C Heat Heat is thermal energy, that is energy not associated with work. For any pure substance, there is a specific quantity of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of the substance by 1 degree. This is called the specific heat or heat capacity. q = m x C x T Enthalpy For constant pressure processes, the heat change is the enthalpy change or H. On the surface of the Earth, the pressure is constant at any given location at close to 1 atmosphere. Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 6!

7 Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the energy change that results from make or breaking bonds between elements. We'll cover this in detail in sections on bonding in molecules and reaction chemistry. For now, let's just consider the chemical energy in a simple fuel. Natural gas is composed mainly of a simple carbon compound called methane, CH4. In a gas stove, the methane reacts with oxygen molecules from the air to make carbon dioxide and water. CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O The products contain less chemical energy in their bonds than do the reactants. The excess energy is given off as heat and light. For every mole of methane used in the combustion reaction, 890 kj of energy are released to the surroundings. Chemistry 102 Professor Shapley page 7!

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