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1 TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 18 The Sun and Other Stars How are stars formed? How is spectroscopy used to study stars? What is magnitude? How are stars classified? 5 Star Temperature and Color Enrichment Activity for Lessons 18-2 and What is a star s life cycle? What kind of star is the Sun? What is the surface of the Sun like? How does the Sun produce energy? 10 Sunspot Activity Enrichment Activity for Lessons 18-7 and What are constellations? What are galaxies? What else do we know about the universe? 14 THE BIG IDEA Integrating Mathematics: How can we estimate the size of the universe? 15 Chapter 18 Key Term Review 16 Chapter 18 Test 17 Chapter 18 Answer Key 20 (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 1

2 18-1 How are stars formed? Match each term in Column B with its description in Column A. Write the correct letter in the space provided. Column A 1. most common element in most stars 2. material in the center of a nebula that becomes a star 3. pair of stars that travel through space together 4. cloud of hot gas and dust 5. closest star to Earth 6. large group of stars that move through space together 7. ball of gases that gives off heat and light 8. force that causes a nebula to contract Column B a. binary stars b. star cluster c. Sun d. hydrogen e. nebula f. star g. protostar h. gravity Skills: applying concepts, classifying The diagram below shows how a star forms. On the lines provided, briefly describe what is shown in each part of the diagram. A. B. C. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 2

3 18-2 How is spectroscopy used to study stars? Write true if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined term to make the statement true. 1. Each element gives off the same spectrum of light. 2. A spectroscope separates heat into different bands of colors. 3. When elements are heated to a high temperature, they give off light. 4. A yellow star is a cool star. 5. Astronomers study the spectrum of a star to find out the star s chemical makeup. 6. Blue stars are the coolest stars. Skills: comparing, classifying, interpreting, modeling Use the information in the table to circle the term that makes each statement true. Then, complete the diagram. COLOR AND TEMPERATURE OF STARS Color Temperature ( C) Red about 3,000 Orange about 4,000 Yellow about 6, A yellow star is (cooler / hotter) than a red star. 2. A blue star is (cooler / hotter) than a yellow star. 3. The only type of star that is cooler than an orange star is a (red / white) star. White-yellow about 7,500 White 8,000 11,000 Blue 29,000 40, A star with a temperature of 3,000 C is (yellow / red). 5. A star with a temperature of about 7,500 C is (white-yellow / blue). 6. The hottest stars are (red / blue). 7. Look at the diagram of the Sun. Use a marker or colored pencil to color the Sun the correct color. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 3

4 18-3 What is magnitude? Write the term that best completes each statement in the space provided. 1. The closer a star is to Earth, the it appears. 2. The dimmest stars visible without a telescope are stars. 3. The actual brightness of a star is its. 4. Scientists have developed a to identify the apparent magnitude of a star. 5. Apparent magnitude depends on a star s, size, and distance from Earth. 6. Some of the brightest stars in the sky are stars. 7. The Sun appears very bright because it is so to Earth. 8. A measure of a star s brightness is called its. 9. When comparing a third-magnitude star with a sixth-magnitude star, the star appears brighter. 10. The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is the star s. Skills: applying concepts, comparing The diagram below shows stars. Stars A and B are both third-magnitude stars. However, the actual brightness of Star A is greater than Star B. Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. The apparent magnitude of Star A is the apparent magnitude of Star B. 2. The absolute magnitude of Star B is the absolute magnitude of Star A. 3. The stars appear equally bright to an observer on Earth because (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 4

5 18-4 How are stars classified? In the space provided, write the term that best completes each statement. 1. The brightness of most stars as the star s surface temperature increases. 2. Very small, hot blue or white stars are called. 3. The Sun and most stars you can see at night are stars. 4. A star s position on the H-R diagram depends upon its _ and its surface temperature, or color. 5. Large, bright stars that are fairly cool are called. 6. Very large, bright stars are called. Skills: identifying, comparing Match each part of the diagram with its label. Then, answer the questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. the Sun _ 2. red giants 3. white dwarfs 4. main sequence stars 5. What relationship does this diagram show? (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 5

6 Star Temperature and Color Enrichment Activity for Lessons 18-2 and 18-4 Skills: diagramming, sequencing PART A Complete the following. 1. Arcturus is a large star with a surface temperature of about 5,000 C. Color Arcturus the correct color. 2. Betelgeuse is larger than Arcturus. Its surface temperature is about 3,000 C. Color Betelgeuse the correct color. What kind of star is Betelgeuse? 3. Sirius is a main sequence star. Its surface temperature is 10,000 C. Color Sirius the correct color. 4. The North Star is about as big as Betelgeuse. Its surface temperature is about 6,300 C. Color the North Star the correct color. 5. Rigel is a very large star. Its surface temperature is about 16,000 C. Color Rigel the correct color. 6. Procyon B is a small star outside the main sequence. Its surface temperature is 6,600 C. Color Procyon B the correct color. What kind of star is Procyon B? PART B Place these stars in order from hottest to coolest. Use 1 for hottest and 6 for coolest. a. Spica (white) b. Sun (yellow) c. Vega (10,000 C) d. Alpha Centauri B (red-orange) e. NGC-5882 (50,000 C) f. Proxima Centauri (red) (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 6

7 18-5 What is a star s life cycle? Write true if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined term to make the statement true. 1. A star changes its heat into energy. 2. In 1987, a protostar was observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 3. During nuclear reactions in large stars, helium is changed into carbon. 4. A star stays in the main sequence stage until all of its helium is used up. 5. A protostar forms when gravity pulls the dust and gases in a nebula together. 6. A star in which the outer layer has been blown off in an explosion is called a nebula. 7. During or right after a supernova, a star may collapse to become a black hole. 8. A very dense ball that may form from a supernova is a protostar. Skills: identifying, sequencing The diagram below shows the life cycle of a small star. Label the diagram using the terms listed in the box. black dwarf black hole planetary nebula main sequence star nebula protostar neutron star white dwarf red giant supernova (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 7

8 18-6 What kind of star is the Sun? Select the term from the box that best completes each sentence. Write your answer in the space provided. atmosphere core light sphere color sphere chromosphere boundaries corona photosphere gases energy 1. The Sun is a large ball of hot. 2. The center part of the Sun is the. 3. The layer of the Sun s atmosphere above the photosphere is the _. 4. The Sun has no distinct. 5. The core is the Sun s source of _. 6. The outer layer of the Sun s atmosphere is the. 7. The chromosphere is the Sun s _. 8. The inner layer of the Sun s atmosphere is the. 9. The two main parts of the Sun are the core and the. 10. The photosphere is the Sun s. Skills: identifying, applying concepts Identify each part of the diagram. Write your answers in the spaces provided. A B C D (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 8

9 18-7 What is the surface of the Sun like? PART A Write true if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined term to make the statement true. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. The movement of sunspots is caused by the spinning of Earth on its axis. 2. Prominences usually form high in the Sun s chromosphere. 3. An area on the Sun s surface that appears dark is warmer than the area around it. 4. Prominences appear in groups that move across the Sun in the same direction. 5. Solar flares send streams of electrically charged particles out into space. PART B Answer the following questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. What are sunspots? 2. What is a solar flare? 3. What is a prominence? Skills: interpreting, predicting Use the graph of sunspot activity between 1770 and 1970 to complete the following. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. How many sunspots were counted in 1780? _ 2. How many years of sunspot activity are shown on the graph? 3. In what four years was the sunspot activity greatest? 4. Sunspots usually occur in 11-year cycles. If the sunspot activity was low in 1810, what would you expect the sunspot activity to be like in 1821? 5. According to the graph, about how many sunspots would have been seen in 1970? (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 9

10 18-8 How does the Sun produce energy? Select the term from the box that best completes each sentence. Write your answer in the space provided. Albert Einstein hydrogen speed of light fusion combine less than Sun energy matter nucleus 1. The Sun produces by nuclear reactions. 2. helped explain how the Sun produces its energy. 3. The nuclei of hydrogen atoms at extremely high temperatures. 4. Einstein said that a small amount of could be changed into a large amount of energy. 5. The greatest percentage of the Sun is made up of. 6. The center of an atom is called the. 7. In a reaction, four hydrogen nuclei combine to form one helium nucleus. 8. The _ is 300,000 km/s. 9. Astronomers can use Einstein s equation to calculate how much energy the produces. 10. The mass of a helium nucleus is _ the mass of four hydrogen nuclei combined. Skills: interpreting, applying concepts Identify the parts of the following equation. Then, answer the question that follows. Write your answers in the spaces provided. E = mc 2 1. c = 2. E = 3. m = 4. What does this equation explain? (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 10

11 Sunspot Activity Enrichment Activity for Lessons 18-7 and 18-8 Skills: graphing, predicting Suppose that you are an astronomer studying sunspots. You began your study in Each year you counted the number of sunspots. Here are your data. Year Number of Sunspots Year Number of Sunspots Year Number of Sunspots Year Number of Sunspots PART A Make a bar graph of your data on the grid below. PART B Use the bar graph to answer the following questions. 1. In what year did you count the most sunspots? 2. In what year did you count the fewest sunspots? 3. Do you see a pattern in the number of sunspots counted from 1989 to 2000? If so, describe the pattern. 4. If you had started your study in 1988, would you predict the number of sunspots would have been greater or less than 10? 5. If you had continued your study in 2001, would the number of sunspots in 2001 be greater or less than 60? 6. In which year could sunspot activity interfere with radio and television reception? Explain. _ (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 11

12 18-9 What are constellations? Match each term in Column B with its description in Column A. Write the letter in the space provided. Column A 1. big bear 2. the North Star 3. the Hunter 4. the pointers are located in its cup 5. pattern of stars in the sky 6. little bear 7. giant red star in Orion 8. Polaris is the first star in its handle Column B a. Betelgeuse b. Big Dipper c. constellation d. Little Dipper e. Orion f. Polaris g. Ursa Major h. Ursa Minor Skills: identifying, diagramming In the spaces provided, draw a diagram of the stars that make up the Little Dipper and Orion. Label the North Star, Rigel, and Betelgeuse in your diagram. Use your text if necessary. Little Dipper Orion (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 12

13 18-10 What are galaxies? Complete the table by placing a check mark in the correct column. TYPES OF GALAXIES Characteristic Elliptical galaxy Irregular galaxy Spiral galaxy 1. Rounded 2. No definite shape 3. Thick center and flattened arms 4. Made up of billions of stars 5. Least common type of galaxy 6. Contains the oldest stars 7. One typed is barred 8. Smaller and fainter than other types of galaxies 9. Main features of the universe 10. Has a nucleus made up of bright stars 11. Milky Way is one Skills: identifying, applying concepts Identify the galaxy shown in the diagram. Then, write three facts about this galaxy in the spaces provided. Galaxy name: Facts: (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 13

14 18-11 What else do we know about the universe? For each statement or description below, write the term that best matches it. Use the terms in the box. You may use terms more than once. universe black hole quasar colliding galaxy Big Bang speed of light 1. includes everything that exists anywhere in space 2. an old, massive star that has collapsed on itself 3. occurred 10 to 15 billion years ago 4. brighter than the light of a thousand galaxies 5. two or more collections of stars that pass through each other 6. forms when a whole star is swallowed by a black hole Skills: interpreting diagrams, sequencing, analyzing The diagram below shows the formation of the universe. Use the diagram to answer the questions. Use additional paper as needed. 1. What is shown at letter A? 2. What happened in the first fraction of a second of the universe s existence? 3. When did the first nuclei of hydrogen and helium form? 4. What happened a little more than 300,000 years after the universe formed? 5. How old was the universe when the first galaxies began to form? (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 14

15 THE Big IDEA Integrating Mathematics Chapter 18 How can we estimate the size of the universe? Refer to the article, call outs, and Figure on pages 460 and 461 of your text to answer the following questions. 1. How far from Earth is the Andromeda Galaxy in light years? 2. How far from Earth is the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy in light years? 3. How far from Earth is the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy in light years? 4. Put the three galaxies noted above in order according to their distance from Earth, starting with the closest and ending with the farthest. Skills: inferring, analyzing Complete the following. 1. What relationship is identified by Hubble s constant? _ 2. Based on Hubble s constant, rank the three galaxies noted above from fastest-moving to slowestmoving. _ 3. Why is the order of the galaxies different when comparing distance and speed? _ Science Log Writing Activity Complete the Science Log on a separate sheet of paper. To complete the Big Idea Online, go to Follow the online instructions. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 15

16 Chapter 18 Key Term Review In the spaces provided, write the term that best fits each description. Unscramble the letters in brackets [ ] to spell a topic that is discussed in this chapter. Write the topic in the space provided at the bottom of the page. Then, explain the meaning of the topic in one or two sentences. 1. Study of light coming from objects in the universe [ ] 2. Way to measure a star s brightness 3. Reaction in which atomic nuclei combine to form larger nuclei 4. Violent explosion in which a star is blown apart [ ] 5. Cloud of gas and dust in space [ ] 6. Dark, cooler area on the Sun s surface 7. Huge group of stars, gas, and dust that travels together through space [ ] 8. Explosion that began the universe many billions of years ago [ ] 9. Pattern of different colors of light coming from an object [ ] 10. Very small, hot star 11. Center of the Sun [ ] 12. Group of stars that form a pattern in the sky [ ] 13. Outer layer of the Sun s atmosphere [ ] 14. Very large and very bright star [ ] 15. Stream of gas that shoots high above the Sun s surface [ ] Topic: Explanation: (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 16

17 Chapter 18 Test Interpreting Tables Answer the questions based on the diagram. 1. What is this diagram called? 2. What does the diagram show? 3. Where would a star with a blue color and a large absolute magnitude appear on the diagram? _ 4. What kind of stars are at Point A on the diagram? 5. What kind of stars make up the band of stars at Point B? 6. What are the small stars at Point D called? 7. At what point is the Sun located on the diagram? 8. According to the diagram, what is the color and surface temperature of the Sun? Multiple Choice Write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement. 1. The nearest star to Earth is a. Proxima Centauri. b. the Sun. c. Betelgeuse. d. Aldebaran. 2. The material in the center of a nebula that becomes a star is a a. white dwarf. b. black hole. c. protostar. d. galaxy. 3. Most stars are made up mostly of a. helium. b. hydrogen and helium. c. iron. d. oxygen. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 17

18 Chapter 18 Test (continued) 4. Astronomers study the light from stars with an instrument called a a. prism. b. spectrum. c. balance. d. spectroscope. 5. Astronomers study the bands of color in a star s spectrum to find out the star s a. chemical makeup. b. distance from Earth. c. distance from the Sun. d. magnitude. 6. The color of the hottest stars is a. blue. b. orange. c. yellow. d. red. 7. The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is the star s a. absolute magnitude. b. spectrum. c. apparent magnitude. d. brilliance. 8. A star in which the outer layer has been blown off in an explosion is a a. white dwarf b. nova. c. supernova. d. protostar. 9. A star s energy comes from a. its mass. b. its volume. c. an engine. d. the Sun. 10. A supernova may shrink into a very dense ball called a a. black hole. b. nova. c. sun. d. neutron star. 11. The outer layer of the Sun s atmosphere is the a. chromosphere. b. eclipse. c. corona. d. photosphere. 12. The dark, cooler areas on the Sun s surface are a. sunspots. b. solar flares. c. eclipses. d. prominences. 13. When hydrogen nuclei fuse, they form a. oxygen nuclei. b. helium nuclei. c. bigger hydrogen nuclei. d. carbon. 14. Einstein s equation is a. E = m 2. b. E = mc. c. MC = E. d. E = mc A group of stars that form a pattern in the sky is a. a constellation. b. a galaxy. c. Ursa Major. d. a chromosphere. 16. The Milky Way is an example of a. an elliptical galaxy. b. a spiral galaxy. c. an irregular galaxy. d. a constellation. 17. An elliptical galaxy is a. flat. b. bar-shaped. c. rounded. d. branched. 18. An object whose atoms are squeezed together tightly into a tiny point is a a. nova. b. white dwarf. c. black hole. d. protostar. 19. An object that glows brighter than the light of a thousand galaxies is a a. neutron star. b. supernova. c. supergiant. d. quasar. 20. Scientists believe that the universe was created in a huge explosion called a. the Big Bang. b. a black hole. c. a supernova. d. a prominence. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 18

19 Chapter 18 Test (continued) Written Response Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 21. INFER: How can a small, yellow star appear brighter than a large, blue star to an observer on Earth? _ 22. HYPOTHESIZE: How do solar flares disrupt communications on Earth? _ (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 19

20 Answer Key CHAPTER 18: THE SUN AND OTHER STARS 18-1 How are stars formed? 1. d 2. g 3. a 4. e 5. c 6. b 7. f 8. h A. Gravity causes a nebula to contract and spin. B. Nebula flattens into a disk, and the material at the center of the disk forms a protostar. C. Protostar continues to contract and nuclear reactions begin to give off light and heat. It has become a star How is spectroscopy used to study stars? 1. a different 2. light 3. true 4. medium-hot 5. true 6. hottest 1. hotter 2. hotter 3. red 4. red 5. white-yellow 6. blue 7. Students should color the Sun yellow What is magnitude? 1. brighter 2. sixth-magnitude 3. absolute magnitude 4. scale 5. temperature 6. first-magnitude 7. close 8. magnitude 9. third-magnitude 10. apparent magnitude 1. equal to 2. less than 3. Star A is farther away from Earth than Star B How are stars classified? 1. increases 2. white dwarfs 3. main sequence 4. absolute magnitude 5. red giants 6. supergiants 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. the relationship between a star s absolute magnitude and its surface temperature, or color 18-4 How are stars classified? Enrichment Activity: Star Temperature and Color PART A 1. Arcturus should be colored yellow. 2. Betelgeuse should be colored red; supergiant 3. Sirius should be colored white. 4. The North Star should be colored yellow or white-yellow. 5. Rigel should be colored blue. 6. Procyon B should be colored yellow or white-yellow; white dwarf PART B a. 2 b. 4 c. 3 d. 5 e. 1 f What is a star s life cycle? 1. mass 2. supernova 3. true 4. hydrogen 5. true 6. nova 7. true 8. neutron star 1. nebula 2. protostar 3. main sequence star 4. red giant 5. planetary nebula 6. white dwarf 7. black dwarf 8. supernova 9. neutron star 10. black hole 18-6 What kind of star is the Sun? 1. gases 2. core 3. chromosphere 4. boundaries 5. energy 6. corona 7. color sphere 8. photosphere 9. atmosphere 10. visible surface A: corona B: chromosphere C: photosphere D: core 18-7 What is the surface of the Sun like? PART A 1. the Sun 2. true 3. cooler 4. sunspots 5. true PART B 1. dark, cool areas on the Sun s surface 2. an eruption of electrically charged particles from the surface of the Sun 3. stream of gas that shoots high above the Sun s surface 1. about , about 1837, 1870, and low 5. about 40 (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 20

21 Answer Key 18-8 How does the Sun produce energy? 1. energy 2. Albert Einstein 3. combine 4. matter 5. hydrogen 6. nucleus 7. fusion 8. speed of light 9. Sun 10. less than 1. c = speed of light 2. E = energy 3. m = mass 4. how a small amount of matter can be changed into a large amount of energy 18-8 How does the Sun produce energy? Enrichment Activity: Sunspot Activity PART A Check to see that students graphs match the numbers in the data table. The years should be on the x-axis and the number of sunspots should be on the y-axis. PART B Yes, there is a pattern. The number of sunspots decreased from its peak in 1989, then gradually increased. 4. greater than greater than ; The greatest number of sunspots occurred during that year What are constellations? 1. g 2. f 3. e 4. b 5. c 6. h 7. a 8. d Check students diagrams for accuracy. The Little Dipper has three stars in the handle and four in the cup. The North Star is the first star in the handle. Three bright stars make up Orion s belt. Betelgeuse is under Orion s arm, and Rigel is in Orion s knee What are galaxies? 1. Elliptical galaxy 2. Irregular galaxy 3. Spiral galaxy 4. Elliptical galaxy, Irregular galaxy, Spiral galaxy 5. Irregular galaxy 6. Elliptical galaxy 7. Spiral galaxy 8. Irregular galaxy 9. Elliptical galaxy, Irregular galaxy, Spiral galaxy 10. Spiral galaxy 11. Spiral galaxy Galaxy name: Milky Way Galaxy Facts: spiral galaxy; contains more than 100,000 billion stars; is about 100,000 light years in diameter What else do we know about the universe? 1. universe 2. black hole 3. Big Bang 4. quasar 5. colliding galaxy 6. quasar 1. the Big Bang 2. Visible light, electricity, and magnetism formed. 3. about 1 second after the Big Bang 4. the first atoms formed 5. 1 billion years The Big Idea 1. about 2 million light years 2. about 160,000 light years 3. about 180,000 light years 4. Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy, Small Magellanic Cloud Galaxy, Andromeda Galaxy 1. There is a direct and constant relationship between a galaxy's speed, or velocity, and its distance from Earth. 2. Andromeda Galaxy, Small Magellanic Cloud Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy 3. The closer a galaxy is to Earth, the slower it moves. CHAPTER 18: THE SUN AND OTHER STARS Key Term Review 1. spectroscopy 2. magnitude 3. fusion 4. supernova 5. nebula 6. sunspot 7. galaxy 8. Big Bang 9. spectrum 10. white dwarfs 11. core 12. constellation 13. corona 14. supergiants 15. prominence Topic: solar energy Explanation: Solar energy is produced in the Sun by nuclear reactions. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 21

22 Answer Key CHAPTER 18: THE SUN AND OTHER STARS Chapter Test Interpreting Diagrams 1. Hertzsprung-Russell or H-R diagram 2. the relationship between a star's absolute magnitude and surface temperature 3. in the upper right 4. red giants 5. main sequence stars 6. white dwarfs 7. C 8. The Sun is a yellow star with a surface temperature between 5,000 and 6,000 C. Multiple Choice 1. b 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. a 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. a 10. d 11. c 12. a 13. b 14. d 15. a 16. b 17. c 18. c 19. d 20. a Written Response 21. If the small, yellow star is much closer to Earth than the large, blue star, it will appear brighter. 22. Solar flares send streams of electrically charged particles that reach Earth and cause power outages from static electricity. The static electricity interferes with the radio waves that carry communications signals. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. The Sun and Other Stars: CHAPTER 18, page 22

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