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1 Reading Guide: Chapter 28.1 (read text pages ) STRUCTURE OF THE SUN 1e Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. 1a. What elements are found in the sun? 1b. What 2 elements make up almost all of the Sun? 92% ; ~8% 2a. List the 3 major regions of the sun. 2b. Describe the boundaries between the layers of the sun. A) B) C) 3. Write T or F & in the space provided, cross out and CORRECT the underlined word if False. a. The core of the sun consists of approximately 50% of the sun s diameter. b. Like the earth, the center of the sun is a dense solid and liquid. c. Gravity of the sun is about equal to gravity on the earth, even though it s mass is 300,000x Earth. d. The temperature of the sun s core is about 15 million C. e. The entire sun is made up of gas. 4a. What is unusual about the structure of the hydrogen elements & protons in the core of the sun? 5a. What is nuclear fusion (see glossary)? 5b. What is hydrogen fusion? is converted to. 6a. What do each of the variables in the formula E=mc 2 represent? E: m: c: 7a. Core: % of the Sun s diameter Temperature: Density: What process is occurring? 7b. Radiative Zone: Surrounds the Temperature: Energy transfer through What is radiation? 4b. What two physical characteristics about the core cause this to happen? & 5c. What is given off at each step of the fusion reaction? 5d. What causes the sun to shine? 6b. What is the formula E=mc 2 used for? 7c. Convective Zone: Surrounds the Temperature: Energy transfer through What is convection? 8a. Photosphere: sphere Energy given off as Temperature: What is granulation? What causes it? 8b. Chromosphere: sphere Color: Temperature: 8c. Corona: What is it? What else is it called? Temperature: What does it prevent? 9. What is the solar wind? 10a. Which layer is the surface of the sun? 10b. Which layer gives off light visible from the earth? 10c. Which layer(s) are only visible during a total solar eclipse? 10d. Which layer is the hottest? Coolest? 10e. Which layer produces energy? 10f. Which layer radiates energy outward? 10g. Which layer convects energy outward? 1

2 Reading Guide: Chapter 28.2 (read text pages ) SOLAR ACTIVITY 1e Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. 1. Solar Rotation a. Do all parts of the sun rotate at the same speed? b. Why/Why not? 2 What produces the powerful magnetic fields of the sun? a. c. Rotation rate: Near the equator d. Rotation rate: Near the poles 3a. What are sunspots? 3c. How long do sunspot cycles last? yrs 3d. If the sun s magnetic field increased in strength, what would happen to the number of sunspots? 4a. What are prominences? 4b. How do prominences interact with the sun s magnetic fields? b. 3b. How do magnetic fields produce sunspots? 1) How do strong magnetic fields affect convection? 2) How does this affect temperature? 3) How does this affect appearance? Diagram & label : Sunspot, prominence, solar flare & solar wind 4c. What is the shape of prominences? 5a. What are solar flares? 5b. Where do solar flares usually occur? 5c. When are solar flares most numerous? 5d. How do solar flares affect the solar wind? 5e. How do solar flares affect earth? 6a. What is a magnetic storm? 6b. Name two effects of magnetic storms. 1) 2) 8a. How much electricity is contained in one nights display of the aurora? 7. Auroras (also called ) a. What causes auroras? b. Where are auroras usually seen? 8d. How are coronal mass ejections connected to the wind? 8b. What occurs during a Coronal Mass Ejection? 8c. What causes coronal mass ejections? 8e. What negative effects are associated with coronal mass ejections? 2

3 NUCLEAR FUSION What type of energy does the sun provide for us? What is the sun s fuel source? Hydrogen: How does the sun produce energy? E=mc 2 What s involved in the nuclear fusion process? Fusion: Protons: Neutrons: Electrons: Hydrogen: Helium: Hydrogen Fusion: 3

4 Video: Nuclear Fusion 1. What is nuclear fusion? 2. What determines which type of element the atom is? 3. Opposites attract is an example of what type of force? 4. Why don t protons in the nucleus repel each other? 5. What is a nuclear reaction? 6. Nuclear reactions release. 7. What is nuclear fission? 8. How are common hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium the same? 9. What does the equation E=mc2 represent? 10. What is lost in a nuclear reaction? What happens to it? Sun Project I. Make a beautiful picture of the sun with all of the parts listed below: 1. Core 8. Solar Wind 2. Radiation Zone 9. Sun Spots 3. Convection Zone 10. The inner zone-2 zones 4. Photosphere 11. The atmosphere- 3 layers 5. Chromosphere 12. Solar flare 6. Spicules 13. Prominence 7. Corona 14. Granulation II. For the core & the inner zones Write in temperature How energy is transferred 1 other important fact III. For the atmosphere and the other parts Write in temperature Definition 1 other important fact USE: Blue Book: Picture pg. 575; pgs Brown Book: Picture- pg. 656; pgs

5 Explain below what happens in each step of the nuclear fusion process STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 5

6 Sun Structure The sun is made up of layers. There are 6 main layers. 3 Inner Layers (inner zones) and 3 Outer Layers (atmosphere) Inner Zones Atmosphere Blue Book: p Layer Name Temperature Energy transfer Fact Inner Zones Layer Name other name Fact 1 Fact 2 Atmosphere There are many features and phenomena that can be observed either on the surface of the sun or in the Earth s atmosphere. Define the following words. Brown Book p655 Word Definition Sun Spots Solar Flares Prominences Solar Winds Granulation Spicules Aurora Magnetic field Nuclear Fusion 6

7 SUN DIAGRAM REVIEW Part I. Name each of the numbered features from the sun picture Part II: Match the features shown on the diagram with the statements below. A. Where does hydrogen fusion take place? B. Dark areas of the sun that are cooler than the surrounding areas and are caused by the sun's magnetic field. C. Lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere that gives off light. D. Charged particles (ions) that continually escape from the corona and move through space. E. Huge, arching columns of glowing gas. F. Gases near a sunspot that suddenly brighten, shooting gases outward at high speed. G. The sunlight we see from earth that is used for photosynthesis. H. The "surface" of the sun. I. Energy moves in the form of electromagnetic waves. J. Energy is transferred through the movement of gases. K. Color sphere. Gases glow red. L. Outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere. M. Not normally seen from Earth, except during an eclipse. N. May cause magnetic storms on Earth or sudden disturbances that interfere with radio communications on Earth. O. Created the auroras on Earth. 7

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