On the relational disequilibrium between paid and voluntary employees in nonprofit organizations and social enterprises.

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1 On the relational disequilibrium between paid and voluntary employees in nonprofit organizations and social enterprises. Yannick Griep Advisors: Prof. Roland Pepermans & Prof. Tim Vantilborgh Department of Work and Organisational Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 1

2 Psychological contract (PC) An individual s beliefs regarding the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between that focal person and another party (Rousseau, 1989) Constant exchange of organizational obligations for employee contributions. Triggers negative emotional reaction (violation feelings) when breached (PCB) -> linked to decrease in (organizational) performance, commitment, citizenship behavior, increase in counter productivity, absenteeism, turnover, Both volunteers and paid employees have a PC and react accordingly when perceiving a PCB and violation feelings (e.g. Nichols, 2012; O Donohue & Nelson, 2009; Vantilborgh et al., 2011; 2012) 2

3 Study 1: PCB, counter productivity, and leader-member exchange among volunteers Weekly survey study for five consecutive weeks among 247 volunteers (827 observations) in a Fair Trade NPO. Assessing psychological contract breach, violation feelings, counterproductive behaviour toward the organization and individual, and leader-member exchange. Zero-inflated Poisson regression analysis Griep, Y., Vantilborgh, T., Baillien, E., & Pepermans, R. (2015). The mitigating role of leader-member exchange when perceiving psychological contract violation: a diary survey study among volunteers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, advanced online publication. DOI: / X

4 Results (1) 4

5 Results (2) 5

6 Results (3) 6

7 Results (4) 7

8 Results (5) 8

9 Study 2: Recursive relationships between PCB and CWB Weekly survey study for five consecutive weeks among 192 volunteers (736 observations) in a Fair Trade NPO, and a daily survey study for ten consecutive working days among 102 US paid employees (921 observations) Assessing psychological contract breach, violation feelings, blame attributions, counterproductive behaviour toward the organization and supervisor, selfidentity threat, and organisational cynicism. Zero-inflated Poisson regression analysis, and 2-level moderated mediation analysis. Griep, Y., Vantilborgh, T., Hansen, D. S., & Pepermans, R. (2nd revision). It is never over! Perceived identity threat and organisational cynicism in the recursive relationship between psychological contract breach and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology. 9

10 Results (1) 10

11 Results (2) Organizational blame attribution (time T).14*** CWB-O (time T+1).73 ***.68 *** PC breach (time T).20 *** Violation feelings (time T+1 & T).74 ***.51 *** Supervisor blame attribution (time T).12 *.17 ** CWB-S (time T+1) 11

12 Results (3) 12

13 Results (4) 13

14 Results (5) CWB-O (time T).20 *** Identity threat (time T+1 & T).31 ***.41 ***.56 ***.25 *** PC breach (time T+1) CWB-S (time T).23 *** Organizational cynicism (time T+1 & T) 14

15 Study 3: The deep structure of PC violation to over-fulfilment Experiment1 among 74 Belgian first year psychology students, Experiment2 among 80 US students and paid employees, and Experiment3 among 35 US students and paid employees. Constant exchange of contributions (picture taks & 4x3 mathematical tasks) for inducements (tokens worth $0.1 and $0.2). Manipulation: paid as promised, overpaid by 50%, underpaid by 50%, paid nothing. All 3 paid condition got the same amount! Self-reports: feelings of hurt, betrayal, cared-for, and self-worth; outcome satisfaction, fairness, trust, and behavioural intention. Physiological data: GSR, femg, HR - valence/arousal framework Griep, Y., Vantilborgh, T., Tomprou, M., Hansen, D. S., Schippers, A., & Pepermans, R. (manuscript in preparation). It gets under your skin doesn t it? A set of experiments investigating physiological and behavioral reactions to perceptions of psychological contract under-fulfillment to over-fulfillment. 15

16 Results (1) 16

17 Results (2) 17

18 Results (3) 18

19 Study 4: The victim s experience and violation resolution Interview study 1 among 40 Greek employees and Interview Study 2 among 41 US employees. Interview protocol: perceived changes in the PC; violation experiences; aftermath of violation; overall evaluation of PC after dealing with violation (resolution). Four research questions: 1) what actions or events do violation victims experience following the violation? 2) what role do actions on the part of victims, the employer, or other parties play in the aftermath of violation? 3) how are the aspects of resolution inter-related? 4) what are the implications of violation resolution for the post-violation employment relationship? Tomprou, M., Griep, Y., & Rousseau, D. M. (1st revision). The victim s experience: The aftermath of psychological contract violation and its implications for violation resolution. Academy of Management Discoveries. 19

20 What actions or events do violation victims experience following the violation? 20

21 What actions or events do violation victims experience following the violation? 73% of our violation victims initiated an action themselves - expressing anger, dissatisfaction, seeking advice, speaking up, trying to resolve the problem, attempting to negotiate, and increasing work efforts. 27% took no action - shift attention to outside activities, or trying to forget. 6.2% reported that the organization took the first step to resolve the violation - recognition for the problem, clarification efforts or promised remedies. 93.8% reported that the organization neglected the violation, gave no credible explanation, offered no solution. 37% reported a supportive supervisor - problem-solving, emotional support, and/or speaking up on the victim s behalf. 65.8% reported peer involvement - peer discussions, help sought from colleagues, speaking up with colleagues, peers helping in emotional repair and problem solving. 21

22 What role do actions on the part of victims, the employer, or other parties play in the aftermath of violation? Proactive acts -> higher levels of resolution (M = 2.70) than no such acts (M = 1.86; p <.05). Proactive acts -> greater satisfaction with the outcome (Mvictim proactive acts = 2.50, Mvictim no proactive acts = 1.72, p <.05). Proactive acts are not related to subsequent organizational responses Subsequent organizational responses are positively related to violation resolution (r =.73***), resolution satisfaction (r =.78***), positive emotional reactions (r =.39**), and negatively related to negative emotional reactions (r = -.31*) and turnover intentions (r = -.32**). 22

23 How are the aspects of resolution inter-related? Violation resolution is positively related to resolution satisfaction (r =. 85***), positive emotional reactions (r =.42**), and negatively related to negative emotional reactions (r = -.29*). What are the implications of violation resolution for the post-violation employment relationship? Violation itself is associated with beliefs in reduced employer obligations while resolution has limited effect on the future employment relationship unless the victim is satisfied with that resolution. 23

24 Study 5: Creating prototypical stories of the aftermath of violation Weekly survey study for ten consecutive weeks among 85 Belgian employees (497 observations) in a Humanitarian NPO, and a weekly survey study for for ten consecutive weeks among 79 Belgian employees (620 observations) in a Fair Trade NPO. Two research questions: 1) what commitment trajectories do violation victims develop in the aftermath of violation? 2) what role do actions on the part of the organization play in the aftermath of violation? Latent Class Growth Curve Analysis with time-varying covariates. Griep, Y., Tomprou, M., Vantilborgh, T., Hansen, D. S., Hofmans, J., Rousseau, M. D. & Pepermans, R. (finalizing manuscript).creating prototypical stories of recommitment and de-commitment in the aftermath of psychological contract violation. 24

25 Results (1) Violation victims follow six different commitment trajectories in the aftermath of violation; most are Negative Accommodation or Succumbing Positive post-violation changes in POS -> re-commitment trajectories Negative post-violation changes in POS -> de-commitment trajectories 25

26 Results (2) Replicating most commitment trajectories (no succumbing) and further differentiating Positive Accommodation according to speed. Similar findings for the effect of post-violation changes in POS on the development of commitment trajectories in the aftermath of violation. 26

27 Examples of related projects on voluntary work Griep, Y., Hyde, M., Vantilborgh, T., Bidee, J., De Witte, H., & Pepermans, R. (2015). Voluntary work and the relationship with unemployment, health, and well-being: A two-year follow-up study contrasting a materialistic and psychosocial pathway perspective, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20(2), Griep, Y., Hanson, L. M., Vantilborgh, T., Janssens, L., Hyde, M., & Pepermans, R. (1st revision). Can voluntary work reduce the risk of dementia? A 5-year longitudinal study among volunteering and non-volunteering seniors in Sweden. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B - Psychological Science. 27

28 Thank you for your attention! Any questions? 28

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