Geometry Vocabulary Booklet


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1 Geometry Vocabulary Booklet
2 Geometry Vocabulary Word Everyday Expression Example Acute An angle less than 90 degrees. Adjacent Lying next to each other. Array Numbers, letter or shapes arranged in a rectangular shape. Angle An angle is a measure of turn one full turn is 360 degrees. Half a turn is 180 degrees. Quarter turn is 90 degrees. Axis Labelled horizontal/ vertical line that marks the edge of a graph or coordinate grid Axis of symmetry Same as a line of symmetry. Base The base is the face of the shape that it is resting on. Bisect To cut in half or cut in two. The base of the cylinder is a circle The diagonals bisect each other.
3 Circle SemiCircle A circle is a twodimensional polygon with one side A semicircle is a twodimensional shape that forms half of a circle Circumference The distance around the circle (perimeter). Concave and Convex Concave =curving inwards (think of going into a cave). Convex =curving outwards. Convex Concave Concentric Shapes or objects that have the same centre so will be inside each other. Congruent If two things are congruent, they are the same size and shape (but may be flipped over in a different position (orientation). Corner (see Vertex) Where two or more edges/ sides on a shape meet. A square has 4 vertices.
4 Cone A solid (3D) shape that has a circular base, 2 faces, 1 edge and no vertices. Cube A solid (3D) shape that has 6 square faces, 12 edges and 8 vertices. It is a prism. Cuboid A solid (3D) shape that has 6 faces (2 square and 4 rectangular), 12 edges and 8 vertices. It is a prism. Cylinder (Cylindrical Prism) A solid (3D) shape that has 3 faces (2 circles and 1 rectangle) and 2 edges. It has no vertices. It is a prism. Diameter A straight line joining the edges of a circle that passes through its centre. The same as the width of the circle. Dodecahedron A solid (3D) shape that has 12 pentagonal faces, 30 edges and 20 vertices. Edge Edges are where two or more faces meet on a threedimensional shape e.g. a cube has 12 edges.
5 Equilateral Triangle A triangle with 3 equal sides and 3 equal angles. It is a regular polygon. Face A face is a flat surface of a threedimensional shape e.g. a cube has 6 faces Heptagon (Septagon) A polygon with 7 sides. In a regular heptagon all 7 sides and 7 angles are equal. Hexagon A polygon with 6 sides and 6 angles. In a regular hexagon all 6 sides and 6 angles are equal. Isosceles Triangle An irregular 3 sided polygon with 2 equal sides and 2 equal angles. Intersecting/ Intersection Kite (Inverted Kite) Two or more lines that meet at a point are called intersecting lines. A quadrilateral with two pairs of equal adjacent sides. Line of symmetry Any line (real or imaginary) that divides a shape in two equal parts, where one part is the mirror image of the other part. Kite Inverted Kite
6 Mirror line Net See line of symmetry A twodimensional pattern of a threedimensional shape that can be folded to form the shape. A net of a cube Obtuse A angle that is more than 90 degrees, but less than 180. Octohedron A solid (3D) shape that has 8 triangular faces, 12 edges and 6 vertices. Octagon A 2D polygon with 8 sides and 8 angles. In a regular octagon all 8 sides and 8 angles are equal. Parallel Two lines equidistant apart that will never meet. Parallelogram A 2D quadrilateral with 2 pairs of parallel lines. Opposite sides are equal in length. Rectangles have two pairs of parallel lines.
7 Pentagon A 2D polygon with 5 sides and 5 angles. In a regular pentagon all 5 sides and 5 angles are equal. Perimeter Perpendicular The distance around the edge of a shape, or the line that marks that edge. Two lines that are at right angles to each other. 3m 4m The perimeter is indicted by the thick black line. The perimeter is 12m Polygon A twodimensional shape which has three or more straight sides and no gaps. Regular polygons have the same size angles and length of sides e.g. square Irregular polygons can have different lengths of sides and angles e.g. scalene triangle/ rectangle.
8 Polyhedron A solid 3D shape with flat faces and straight edges. Prism A solid (3D) shape whose bases or ends have the same size and shape and are parallel to one another. Pyramid A solid (3D) shape with a 2D base e.g. triangle/ square/ pentagon etc and triangular faces which meet at a point. Quadrilateral A shape with four straight edges. Radius The distance from the centre of a circle to its edge. Rectangle (Oblong) A quadrilateral with 4 right angles; opposite sides are the same length.
9 Rhombus A parallelogram with four equal sides RightAngles Angle of 90 degrees RightAngled Triangle A triangle with one right angle. Scalene Triangle Sphere A triangle with different length of sides and different sized angles. A solid (3D) shape with 1 face, no edges and no vertices. Hemisphere A solid (3D) shape with a circular base, 2 faces and 1 edge. It is half a sphere. Square A regular quadrilateral, with 4 equal sides and 4 right angles. It has 4 lines of symmetry. Symmetrical Symmetry is when one shape becomes exactly like another if you flip, slide or turn it. The simplest type of Symmetry is "Reflection" (or "Mirror") Symmetry
10 Tangram Tessellate/ Tessellation A Chinese geometric puzzle consisting of a square cut into seven pieces that can be arranged to make various other shapes. Repeated use of a shape, without gaps/ overlapping. Tetrahedron A triangular based pyramid consisting of 4 equilateral faces. Translation Moving points/ shapes on a coordinate grid a specified amount e.g. (4,3) Trapezium A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel lines. Triangle A polygon with 3 sides and internal angles of 180 degrees. There are 4 types: Scalene, RightAngled, Equilateral and Isosceles.
11 Venn Diagram A diagram that allows you to group items into two or more categories, some of which might belong to more than one category. Vertex Volume Mathematical name for a corner (vertices is the plural of vertex). How much space there is inside an object, measured in litres of cubic metres. A square has 4 vertices, a cube has 8. This cube is 2cm x 2cm x 2cm so its volume is 8cm 3
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