American History Unit 11: Manifest Destiny (Part 03): Oregon Dispute & the War with Mexico

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1 American History Unit 11: Manifest Destiny (Part 03): Oregon Dispute & the War with Mexico

2 Manifest Destiny I. What was Manifest Destiny? A. American belief they were superior to Mexicans and Indians. 1. Justification to take over land. B. New Mexico Territory 1. Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado. a. Capital of territory was Santa Fe 1a. Mexican controlled area. 1aa. Mexico prohibited Americans from settling the area.

3 Manifest Destiny: Fifty-four forty or fight! II. Election of 1844 A. Henry Clay (Whig) vs. James K. Polk (Democrat) 1. Polk demanded Texas and Oregon be added to the U.S. a. "Fifty-four forty or fight!" 1a. Democratic slogan during election. B. James K. Polk won. 1. War over expansion? a. England and U.S. avoid war. 1a. Oregon given to U.S. b. Mexico and U.S.? 1b. War declared! James K. Polk

4 The Oregon Dispute

5 Manifest Destiny Map

6 Mexican War ( ) 1848) I. Texas was annexed by John Tyler on his last day in office. A. December 29, 1845, Texas became the twenty-eighth state of the Union. B. The Mexican government became angry about the American claim to Texas. 1. Mexico threatened to go to war against the United States. 2. President Polk wanted to avoid war with Mexico. a. Wanted to wait until the dispute with the British claim to Oregon was settled. (See previous slide) 1a. Didn't want to fight two wars at the same time. b. Dispute concerning the spread of slavery ignited in Congress. 3. The border between Mexico and the United States not settled. a. The U.S. claimed the border was the Rio Grande. b. Mexico claimed the border was at the Nueces River. 4. President Polk sent Foreign Minister Slidell to Mexico. a. Wanted to discuss a peaceful settlement of the Texas boundaries. b. U.S. offered to buy California, Arizona, and New Mexico for $30 million. 1b. Mexico claimed this offer as an insult.

7 Border Dispute Between Mexico and the United States

8 Mexican War ( ) 1848) II. The Mexican War began. A. The Mexican army ambushed a U.S. patrol in the disputed area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River. 1. Sixteen U.S. cavalry troops were killed. 2. American citizens demanded revenge. III. The United States declared war on Mexico. A. Not all Americans wanted a war. 1. Southerners wanted war. 2. Northerners didn't want war. a. Spread of slavery was the reason.

9 Mexican War ( ): 1848): Battles IV. Mexico was unable to stop the U.S. army's advances. A. The U.S. army won every battle with great ease. B. General Taylor captured Buena Vista. C. General Stephen Kearney 1. Captured Santa Fe, (New Mexican Capital) 2. Captured Southern California. D. John Fremont 1. Captured Northern California a. Proclaimed California an independent republic, "Bear Flag Republic. E. General Winfield Scott 1. Captured Vera Cruz 2. Captured Mexico City a. Chapultepec 1a. Fort outside Mexico City. 2a. Heroic last stand by Mexican troops. General Winfield Scott: Led the Americans to victory during the Mexican War. Many American soldiers in this war later fought against each other during the Civil War.

10 The Mexican War Map

11 Mexican War ( ): 1848): End V. Mexico surrendered Feb. 2, A. The peace treaty was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo. 1. Mexico ceded all land the U.S. conquered. 2. The United States paid $15 million for the land. a. Felt guilty about the easy victory. 3. Mexico never forgave U.S. for this war and what we took. VI. The Gadsden Purchase. A. The U.S. paid 10 million dollars to Mexico for a small strip of land south of New Mexico and Arizona.

12 The War with Mexico Number of Firsts" The United States' first foreign war. The first war anywhere in the world to be photographed. The first war in which steamboats played an important role. The first war in which newspaper correspondents regularly reported. The first war in which graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point participated. Among these were a number of officers who would later face each other across the battlefields of the Civil War: Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. "Stonewall Jackson, Braxton Bragg, Ulysses S. Grant, George Meade, George McClellan, and William T. Sherman, to name but a few.

13 U.S. Territorial Gains from Mexico

14 Concepts to Know 1. Explain Manifest Destiny. 2. What was the Oregon dispute and how was it settled? 3. Explain why the United States went to war with Mexico. 4. Describe the war with Mexico. 5. What were the conditions of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? 6. What lands did the United States gain from the war against Mexico?

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