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1 You need 11 different colors

2 Families on the Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties. Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table. Elements in each family react differently with other elements. The horizontal rows are called periods and are labeled from 1 to 7. The vertical columns are called groups or families and are labeled from 1 to 18.

3 Hydrogen Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. Family #1 Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles color hydrogen color 1

4 ALKALI METALS Family 2 Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal 1 electron in the outer shell Soft and silvery metals Very reactive, esp. with water Conduct electricity Color the rest of this group color 2

5 Alkali Metals 1 st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen. Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt). Soft enough to cut with a butter knife

6 ALKALINE EARTH METALS Family 3 2 electrons in the outer shell White and malleable Reactive, but less than Alkali metals Conduct electricity Color the Alkaline Earth Metals color 3

7 Alkaline Earth Metals Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2) Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature. Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca

8 TRANSITION METALS Family 4 Good conductors of heat and electricity. Some are used for jewelry. The transition metals are able to put up to 32 electrons in their second to last shell. Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes. Color Transition Metals color 4

9 Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Metals used as metal.

10 BORON FAMILY Family #5 3 electrons in the outer shell Most are metals Boron is a metalloid Color Boron Family color 5

11 Boron Family Elements in group 13 Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a disposable metal.

12 CARBON FAMILY Family #6 4 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C) Color Carbon Family with color 6

13 Carbon Family Elements in group 14 Contains elements important to life and computers. Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.

14 NITROGEN FAMILY Family 7 5 electrons in the outer shell Can share electrons to form compounds Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals Color the nitrogen family with color 7

15 Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. Most of the world s nitrogen is not available to living things. The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.

16 OXYGEN FAMILY or Chalcogens Family 8 6 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals Reactive Color the Oxygen family with color 8

17 Oxygen Family or Chalcogens Elements in group 16 Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)

18 Halogens Family 9 7 electrons in the outer shell All are non-metals Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1 Color the Halogen group with color 9

19 Halogens Elements in group 17 Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals Always found combined with other element in nature. Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.

20 Noble Gases Family 10 Exist as gases Non-metals 8 electrons in the outer shell = Full Helium (He) has only 2 electrons in the outer shell = Full Not reactive with other elements Color the noble gases with color 10

21 The Noble Gases Elements in group 18 VERY unreactive, monatomic gases Used in lighted neon signs Used in blimps to fix the Hindenberg problem. Have a full valence shell.

22 Rare Earth Metals Family #11 Some are Radioactive The rare earths are silver, silverywhite, or gray metals. Conduct electricity Color Rare Earth Metals with color 11

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