1 Chemistry I (Materials) Unit Five: The Periodic Table Part 1: Development of the Periodic Table Part 2: Reading the Periodic table Part 3: Periodic Trends
2 Big Idea (December): How is the periodic table organized, and how does it allow us to predict the properties of elements?
3 Performance Standards II.I.I. 4 and 8 Properties of Matter 4. Describe trends in properties (e.g., ionization energy or reactivity as a function of location on the periodic table, boiling point of organic liquids as a function of molecular weight). Structure of Matter 8. Make predictions about elements using the periodic table (e.g., number of valence electrons, metallic character, reactivity, conductivity, type of bond between elements).
4 A. Organizing the squares: 1. The periodic table is made of squares each of which represents a unique element. 2. What information does this square provide about carbon?
5 A. Organizing the squares: 1. The periodic table is made of squares each of which represents a unique element. 2. What information does this square provide about carbon? Carbon s atomic number is 6, its element symbol is C and its atomic mass is
6 A. Organizing the squares: 3. Different periodic tables may present different kinds of information or present information in different ways. 4. Elements with similar properties are aligned in vertical columns called groups or families 5. The horizontal rows are called periods 6. There are 7 periods and 18 groups
8 A. Organizing the squares: 7. Look at periods 6 and 7. To keep the periodic table from being too wide 14 elements each were taken out of periods 6 and 7 and placed under the main body of the table. 8. How many elements does the 1 st period have? The 3 rd? The 5 th? The 7 th?
9 A. Organizing the squares: 7. Look at periods 6 and 7. To keep the periodic table from being too wide 14 elements each were taken out of periods 6 and 7 and placed under the main body of the table. 8. How many elements does the 1 st period have? 2 The 3 rd? 8 The 5 th? 18 The 7 th? 30
10 B. Labeling and Naming Groups: 1. Groups are labeled one of two ways: with roman numerals or Arabic numerals followed by an A or B and/or by Arabic numerals 1-18.
12 B. Labeling and Naming Groups: 2. Some groups are also given family names a) Group 1 (1A): alkali metals b) Group 2 (2A): alkaline earth metals c) Group 17 (7A): halogens d) Group 18 (8A): noble gases
14 B. Labeling and Naming Groups: 3. Other groups/families are identified by the name of the first element. Example: Group 14 (4A) is called the carbon group/family. C. The hydrogen square is often separated from the periodic table. It is really not a member of any family. Although it is placed with the alkali metals, it is not a metal. Its best fit is with the halogens.
15 Reading the Periodic Table D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals 1. Most elements are metals. a) Shiny, they have a metallic luster b) Good conductors of heat and electricity c) Solids at room temperature (except mercury which is a liquid) d) Most are malleable and ductile
16 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals i. Define malleable:
17 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals i. Define malleable: Capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure.
18 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals ii. Define ductile:
19 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals ii. Define ductile: Easily drawn into wire.
20 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals 2. Nonmetals have none of the characteristics listed above. a) Many are gases at room temperature b) Others are solids c) Bromine is the only liquid d) Vary in physical properties: colored/colorless, soft solids/hard solids
21 D. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals 3. Metals are on the left side of the table (except hydrogen) 4. Nonmetals are on the far right 5. Semimetals (also called metalloids) are located between the metals and nonmetals. Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
22 Reading the Periodic Table Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals In this table, metals are shaded blue, nonmetals are shaded red and semimetals are shaded purple.
23 E. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 1. To understand the periodic table, you need to know how an atom s electrons are arranged. 2. Electrons that occupy the highest principal energy level are the atom s outermost electrons called valence electrons.
24 E. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 3. Valence electron are responsible for an atom s chemical behavior. 4. Elements in a group have similar properties because they have valence electrons in similar configurations.
25 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 5. How many valence electrons do sodium, lithium and hydrogen have? 6. Should they have similar properties? 7. Do they belong to the same group?
26 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 8. Elements with similar valence electrons are placed in the same columns or groups/families on the periodic table.
27 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 9. Abbreviated electron configurations have an atom s inner electrons represented by the symbol for the nearest noble gas with a lower atomic number. 10. These inner electrons are called the noble gas inner core of the atom.
28 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 11. Abbreviated electron configurations: a) Lithium = He 2s 1. i. He represents helium s electron configuration which is 1s 2. ii. Outside this helium inner core lithium has a single valence electron in a 2s orbital.
29 E. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 11. Abbreviated electron configurations: b) Write the symbol and abbreviated electron configurations for all elements in Group 1A:
31 E. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 12. The periodic table is divided into four blocks according to valence electrons.
32 E. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 13. The s-block is composed of hydrogen, helium and elements in Groups 1A and 2A (the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals). Valence electrons are in s orbitals only. Group 1A has 1 valence electron in an s orbital. Group 2A has 2 valence electrons in an s orbital. Can there be more than 2 electrons in an s orbital?
33 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 14. The p-block: from left to right, the elements valence electrons fill p orbitals (progress from p 1 to p 6 ). a) Why does the 1 st period of the table have no p-block elements? b) Why is the p-block 6 elements wide?
34 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 14. The p-block: from left to right, the elements valence electrons fill p orbitals (progress from p 1 to p 6 ). a) Why does the 1 st period of the table have no p-block elements? The 1 st principal energy level has no p sublevels b) Why is the p-block 6 elements wide? p orbits can hold up to 6 electrons
35 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table
36 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 15. The d-block: from left to right, the elements valence electrons fill d orbitals (progress from d 1 to d 10 ). a) Why do the 1 st three periods of the table have no d-block elements? b) Why is the d-block 10 elements wide?
37 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 15. The d-block: from left to right, the elements valence electrons fill d orbitals (progress from d 1 to d 10 ). a) Why do the 1 st three periods of the table have no d-block elements? The 1 st 3 principal energy levels have no d sublevels b) Why is the d-block 10 elements wide? A d orbital can hold up to 10 electrons,
38 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table
39 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 16. The f-block. The 1 st f orbital is the 4f, which begins filling with elements in the 6 th period. The f-block is 14 elements wide because the f sublevel can hold 14 electrons. Electrons do not fill f orbitals sequentially from f 1 to f 14.
40 E. Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table 17. The s-block and p-block elements are called the representative elements (or main-group elements). 18. The d-block elements are called the transition metals. 19. Elements in the f-block are known as the inner transition metals.
41 Reading the Periodic Table Review Questions 1. Why do elements in a group have similar properties? 2. Sketch the general shape of the periodic table and label the s-, p-,d-, and f-blocks.
42 Reading the Periodic Table Review Questions 1. Why do elements in a group have similar properties? They have valence electrons in similar configurations 2. Sketch the general shape of the periodic table and label the s-, p-,d-, and f-blocks.
43 Reading the Periodic Table 3. Describe the general differences between the elements on the right side of the periodic table and those on the left. Right side contains nonmetals (poor conductors of electricity). Left side contains the metals, except hydrogen, (solids, metallic luster, conduct electricity).
44 Reading the Periodic Table 4. What information is presented inside each square of the periodic table?
45 Reading the Periodic Table 4. What information is presented inside each square of the periodic table? Element s name, symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, abbreviated electron configuration.
46 Reading the Periodic Table 5. An experiment calls for bromine, which is not available. Which would be the better substitute, chlorine or selenium?
47 Reading the Periodic Table 5. An experiment calls for bromine, which is not available. Which would be the better substitute, chlorine or selenium? Chlorine, because chlorine and bromine are both halogens and share similar chemical properties.
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