7. How much water should be removed from the graduated cylinder shown below to leave 5 milliliters of water in the cylinder?

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1 1. Which activity might lead to damage of a microscope and specimen? A) cleaning the ocular and objectives with lens paper B) focusing with low power first before moving the high power into position C) using the coarse adjustment to focus the specimen under high power D) adjusting the diaphragm to obtain more light under high powe 2. Many scientists consider viruses nonliving. Evidence supporting this consideration includes the fact that viruses A) always function independently of living organisms B) are multinucleated cells C) lack basic cellular organelles D) cannot be reproduced in a sterile culture medium 3. The cell theory states that A) all cells have nuclei that contain genetic information B) living organisms are composed of cells that arise from preexisting cells C) all cells regenerate and contain the same basic structures D) organisms that lack certain organelles reproduce by binary fission 4. What has to be properly functioning in a unicellular organism for homeostasis to be maintained? A) organelles B) insulin C) guard cells D) antibodies 5. Which cell organelle is composed of a series of channels throughout the cytoplasm that functions in the transport of molecules? A) lysosome B) chloroplast C) cell wall D) endoplasmic reticulum 6. What is the main function of a vacuole in a cell? A) storage B) coordination C) synthesis of molecules D) release of energy 7. How much water should be removed from the graduated cylinder shown below to leave 5 milliliters of water in the cylinder? A) 6 ml B) 7 ml C) 11 ml D) 12 ml 8. The diagram below represents a cell. Which statement concerning ATP and activity within the cell is correct? A) The absorption of ATP occurs at structure A. B) The synthesis of ATP occurs within structure B. C) ATP is produced most efficiently by structure C. D) The template for ATP is found in structure D. 9. Which formula represents an organic compound? A) Mg(OH)2 B) NaCl C) Cl2H22O11 D) NH3

2 10. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below and your knowledge of biology. Neither enzyme works at a ph of A) 1 B) 5 C) 3 D) Dissolved nutrients, wastes, and oxygen are exchanged between the blood and intercellular fluid through the walls of A) arteries B) veins C) capillaries D) ventricles 12. Which phrase is an example of autotrophic nutrition? A) a cow eating grass in a field B) a mushroom digesting a dead log C) an apple tree making its own food D) a tapeworm feeding in the body of a dog 13. A disaccharide combines with water to produce two monosaccharides in the process known as A) hydrolysis B) dehydration synthesis C) aerobic respiration D) photosynthesis 14. Which statement about enzymes is not correct? A) Enzymes are composed of polypeptide chains. B) Enzymes form a temporary association with a reactant. C) Enzymes are destroyed when they are used and must be synthesized for each reaction. D) Enzymes are specific because of their shape and catalyze only certain reactions. 15. Which statement is a valid conclusion based on the information in the graph below? A) The maximum rate of human digestion occurs at about 45 C. B) The maximum rate of human respiration occurs at about 57 C. C) Temperature can influence the action of an enzyme. D) Growth can be controlled by enzyme action. 16. The enzyme amylase will affect the breakdown of carbohydrates, but it will not affect the breakdown of proteins. The ability of an enzyme molecule to interact with specific molecules is most directly determined by the A) shapes of the molecules involved B) number of molecules involved C) sequence of bases present in ATP D) amount of glucose present in the cell

3 Base your answers to questions 17 through 19 on on the chart below and your knowledge of Biology. 17. In which section of the chart do the substances hemoglobin and enzymes belong? A) A B) E C) C D) I 18. Which belongs in section G? A) B) C) D) 19. Which of the following is NOT correctly paired? A) A- amino acid B) F- lipids C) H- nucleic acid D) D- monosaccharide 20. In the human body, oxygen is absorbed by the lungs and nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine. In a single-celled organism, this absorption directly involves the A) nucleus B) chloroplasts C) cell membrane D) chromosomes 21. Bleeding from a small cut soon stops due to the release of enzymes from A) platelets B) activated antibodies C) hemoglobin D) white blood cells

4 22. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents movement of a large molecule across a membrane. Which process is best represented in this diagram? A) active transport B) diffusion C) protein building D) gene manipulation 23. Which process is represented by the reactions illustrated in the diagram below? A) hydrolysis B) dehydration synthesis C) chemical digestion D) absorption 24. Base your answer to the following question on Which activity is illustrated in the diagram of an ameba shown below? 26. In humans, structures that release digestive secretions directly into the small intestine include both the A) salivary glands and the pancreas B) gall bladder and the lacteals C) villi and the salivary glands D) pancreas and the gall bladder 27. Feces is usually about 40 percent water and 60 percent solid matter. Reducing the water content to 20 percent would most likely result in A) ulcers B) appendicitis C) diarrhea D) constipation 28. In which heart diagram do the arrows correctly represent the path of blood flow? A) B) A) egestion B) synthesis C) respiration D) ingestion 25. A disorder in which there is uncontrolled production of nonfunctional white blood cells in the bone marrow is known as A) emphysema B) anemia C) leukemia D) angina C) D)

5 29. Which diagram best illustrates the function of an alveolus? A) B) C) D) Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. A scientist conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that maple seeds exposed to acid rain will take longer to germinate than seeds exposed to normal rain, which has a ph of 5.6. The scientist set up four groups, each containing 200 maple seeds. The water used for each group had a different ph value: 5.6, 4.0, 3.0, and 2.0. All other conditions were kept the same. After ten days, the number of seeds that had germinated in each group was counted. 30. Identify the dependent variable in this experiment. 31. Identify the control group in this experiment. 32. Which sequence correctly indicates the branching pattern of the human respiratory system? A) trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli B) trachea bronchioles bronchi alveoli C) alveoli trachea bronchioles bronchi D) alveoli bronchioles trachea bronchi 33. The process of active transport requires the most direct use of A) carbon dioxide B) amino acids C) ATP D) glucose 34. A student has a hamburger, French fries, and soda for lunch. Which sequence represents the correct order of events in the nutritional processing of this food? A) ingestion digestion absorption egestion B) digestion absorption ingestion egestion C) digestion egestion ingestion absorption D) ingestion absorption digestion egestion 35. The main function of the human digestive system is to A) rid the body of cellular waste materials B) process organic molecules so they can enter cells C) break down glucose in order to release energy D) change amino acids into proteins and carbohydrates 36. Which procedure would most likely provide valid results in a test to determine if drug A would be effective in treating cancer in white mice? A) injecting 1 ml of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer B) injecting 1 ml of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 ml of drug X into 100 white mice without cancer C) injecting 1 ml of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 ml of drug X into another group of 100 white mice with cancer D) injecting 1 ml of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 1 ml of distilled water into another group of 100 white mice with cancer 37. A student placed a food sample in a test tube. She added Benedict's solution to the sample and heated the test tube in a boiling water bath. After a few minutes, no color change was observed. Which conclusion could correctly be drawn? A) Glucose is not present. B) Protein is not present. C) Glucose is present. D) Protein is present. 38. When onion cells are observed with a compound light microscope, which laboratory technique is used to make the nucleus more visible? A) centrifugation B) chromatography C) microdissection D) staining

6 Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Three students each added equal volumes of pond water to four beakers and placed each beaker in a different water bath. Each student maintained the water baths at temperatures shown in the data table. The students then added an equal number of water fleas to each of their four beakers. After one hour, the students used microscopes to determine the average heart rate of the water fleas. The procedure was repeated for a total of three trials at each temperature. The results of the investigation are summarized in the data table. 39. The independent variable in this investigation is the A) number of trials B) number of water fleas C) temperature of the water D) average heart rate 40. State the relationship between temperature and heart rate in water fleas. 41. A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken pox would contain A) a large amount of live virus B) a dead or weakened form of the pathogen C) several different antibiotics D) a small number of white blood cells 42. The muscular nature of the walls of ventricles is most closely associated with their function of A) storing blood from the body B) producing red blood cells C) maintaining pressure lower than that in the atria D) forcing blood to the lungs and body

7 43. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents cells seen in the low-power field of view of a compound light microscope. 47. Cellular communication is illustrated in the diagram below. The length of one of these cells is approximately A) 200 µm B) 400 µm C) 500 µm D) 2,000 µm 44. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below shows a wasp positioned next to a centimeter ruler. What is the approximate length of a wing of this wasp? A) 1.0 mm B) 1.4 cm C) 3.5 cm D) 35 mm 45. It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce A) antigens to fight the flu virus B) antibodies against the flu virus C) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus D) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus 46. The excretory system is responsible for moving toxic wastes, dissolved molecules, and excess heat. You would conclude that the excretory system contributes to A) circulating molecules around the body B) maintaining dynamic equilibrium in the body C) producing egg and sperm cells in the body D) gas exchange Information can be sent from A) cell A to cell B because cell B is able to recognize signal 1 B) cell A to cell B because cell A is able to recognize signal 2 C) cell B to cell A because cell A is able to recognize signal 1 D) cell B to cell A because cell B is able to recognize signal Base your answer to the following question on Select one human body system from the list below. Body Systems Digestive Circulatory Immune Respiratory Excretory Describe a malfunction that can occur in the system chosen. Your answer must include at least: the name of the system and a malfunction that can occur in this system a description of a possible cause of the malfunction identified one way the malfunction could be prevented or treated.

8 49. Base your answer to the following question on Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Students cut 20 rod-shaped pieces of potato of the same diameter and length. Five pieces of potato were placed into each of four beakers containing different concentrations of sugar solutions. Each potato piece was measured again after 24 hours. The table below shows the results of their experiment. Which graph best represents the information in the data table above? A) B) C) D)

9 50. Base your answer to the following question on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram illustrates an investigation carried out in a laboratory activity on diffusion. The beaker and the artificial cell also contain water. Predict what would happen over time by showing the location of molecules I, G, and S in diagram B above.

10 Answer Key Midterm Review 1. C 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. D 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. D 11. C 12. C 13. A 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. C 21. A 22. A 23. B 24. D 25. C 26. D 27. D 28. D 29. B 30. number of seeds that germinated at different phs how many seeds grew germination of seeds 31. group with normal rainwater group with water of ph A 33. C 34. A 35. B 36. D 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. Examples: As the temperature increases, the heart rate increases. As temperature changes from 35 C to 5 C, heart rate in the water flea decreases. 41. B 42. D 43. B 44. B 45. B 46. B 47. C 48. (essay) 49. B 50.

11 Answer Key Midterm Review 48. Examples: Malfunctions associated with the selected system: digestive - ulcer circulatory - heart attack respiratory - emphysema excretory - kidney stones nervous - Parkinson's disease Direct or indirect cause of malfunction identified: ulcer - excess stomach acid heart attack - high fat diet emphysema - smoking kidney stones - genetic cause Parkinson's disease - brain stops making a sufficient supply of critical chemical (dopamine) Effect the malfunction has on any other system: ulcer - causes bleeding heart attack - reduces oxygen to the brain emphysema - reduces oxygen in the circulatory system kidney stones - stimulates nervous system resulting in pain Parkinson's disease - involuntary muscular contractions

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