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1 Lesson Outline for Teaching Lesson 1: Using the Periodic Table A. What is the periodic table? 1. The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into rows and columns according to their chemical and physical properties. 2. The table can be used to determine how all elements are related to one another. B. Developing a Periodic Table 1. In the mid-1800s, Russian chemist and teacher Dimitri Mendeleev created a table to help classify the elements by their properties. a. He placed the elements in rows of increasing atomic mass. b. The elements in the table showed repeating patterns; periodic is a word used to describe such patterns. c. For example, Mendeleev noticed patterns in the melting point of elements, the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. 2. After arranging the known elements in a periodic table, Mendeleev noticed large gaps between some elements. He predicted that scientists would find new elements to fit into these spaces. Mendeleev s predictions were correct. 3. In the early 1900s, Henry Moseley found that the problem with Mendeleev s table could be solved if the elements were arranged in rows by atomic number. 4. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. C. Today s Periodic Table 1. You can identify the properties of an element by studying its placement on the periodic table. 2. The element key shows the element s name, atomic number, chemical symbol, state of matter, and atomic mass. 3. A(n) group is a column on the periodic table. 4. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties, which means they react with other elements in similar ways. 5. The rows in the periodic table are called periods. 6. As you read from left to right across the periodic table, atomic number increases by one for each element. 7. Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals, which are shiny and conduct thermal energy and electricity. T2

2 Lesson Outline continued 8. Most nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table; these elements do not conduct thermal energy and electricity. 9. Between the metals and nonmetals on the periodic table are the metalloids, which have properties of metals and nonmetals. D. How Scientists Use the Periodic Table 1. Scientists use the periodic table to predict the properties of the new elements they create. 2. Elements that are near each other on the periodic table share similar properties. Discussion Question How are elements in the same group of the periodic table likely to be similar and different? How are elements in the same period of the periodic table likely to be similar and different? Elements in the same group are likely to have similar chemical properties; they might also have similar physical properties or be different by showing distinct patterns in their physical properties. Elements in the same period increase as you move from left to right; their properties change in patterned ways as you move across the period. T3

3 Lesson Outline for Teaching Lesson 2: Metals A. What is a metal? 1. A(n) metal is an element that is generally shiny, is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets, and is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy. 2. Luster describes the ability of a metal to reflect light. 3. Copper is a good conductor of thermal energy and electricity that is commonly used in cookware. 4. Ductility is the ability of a substance to be pulled into thin wires. 5. Malleability is the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets. 6. Except for mercury, all metals are solid at room temperature. 7. Metals in the same group in the periodic table usually have very similar chemical properties. B. Group 1: Alkali Metals 1. The elements in group 1 of the periodic table are the alkali metals. They include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. 2. Because alkali metals react quickly with other elements, they exist in nature only as compounds. 3. Pure alkali metals are silver in color. They are very soft and have low density. C. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals 1. The elements in group 2 of the periodic table are the alkaline earth metals. They include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. 2. Alkaline earth metals are not quite as reactive as alkali metals. Still, they occur naturally only as compounds. 3. Alkaline earth metals are silver in color, similar to alkali metals. 4. Alkaline earth metals have a low density but have a greater density than alkali metals. D. Groups 3 12: Transition Elements 1. The elements in groups 3 12 of the periodic table are the transition elements. 2. The transition elements are located in two blocks in the periodic table; one block is in the center of the table; the other block includes two rows at the bottom of the table. 3. Transition metals have higher densities, greater strength, higher melting points and are less reactive than alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. T4

4 Lesson Outline continued 4. Main-block transition elements such as iron [or another element in the group] make good building materials. 5. Main-block transition elements react with other elements and form colorful compounds, some of which are used in paints and pigments. 6. The top row of transition elements at the bottom of the periodic table is the lanthanide series, and the bottom row is the actinide series. E. Patterns in Properties of Metals 1. As you go from right to left across the periodic table, metallic properties of the elements tend to increase. 2. As you go from the top of a group of elements to the bottom of the group, the metallic properties of the group tend to increase. Discussion Question Give an example of a metal from each of the three main groups of metals. Describe three or more properties of each example. Examples of alkali metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, and rubidium. These metals are highly reactive with other elements, are silvery, soft, and have low density. Alkaline earth metals include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium. These metals are highly reactive but not as reactive as alkali metals; they are soft, silvery, and low in density, but not quite as low as alkali metals. Transition metals include copper, silver, gold, and nickel. These have higher densities, are stronger, and have higher melting points than alkali and alkaline earth metals; they are not as reactive with oxygen. T5

5 Lesson Outline for Teaching Lesson 3: Nonmetals and Metalloids A. The Elements of Life 1. Most of the mass of your body is composed of four elements. 2. The most common elements in your body are nonmetals. 3. A(n) nonmetal is an element that has no metallic properties. B. How are nonmetals different from metals? 1. Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature. 2. The nonmetals that are solid at room temperature have no luster. 3. Nonmetals are poor conductors and, therefore, are good insulators. 4. In group 14, there is only one nonmetal the element carbon. 5. In group 15, there are two nonmetals nitrogen, which is a gas, and phosphorus, which is a solid. 6. In group 16, there are three nonmetals the gas oxygen and the solids sulfur and selenium. C. Group 17: The Halogens 1. The elements in group 17 of the periodic table are the halogens. 2. Group 17 elements react with metals to form salts. 3. Because halogens react quickly with other elements, they occur naturally only as compounds. 4. In general, halogens are less reactive as you move down the group in the periodic table. D. Group 18: The Noble Gases 1. The elements in group 18 of the periodic table are the noble gases. 2. The noble gases include helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. 3. The noble gases react with other elements only under special conditions. 4. The noble gases were not yet discovered when Mendeleev constructed his periodic table. 5. The most common element in the universe is hydrogen. 6. Hydrogen is like a nonmetal because it is a(n) gas at room temperature. 7. Liquid hydrogen is like a(n) metal because it conducts electricity well. T6

6 Lesson Outline continued E. Metalloids 1. The metalloids are elements that have physical and chemical properties of metals and nonmetals. 2. Metalloids include boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine. 3. At high temperatures, semiconductors conduct electricity as well as metals do; at low temperatures, semiconductors do not conduct electricity well. 4. Semiconductors are useful in computers, televisions, and other electronic devices. 5. The main metalloids used in microchips are silicon and germanium. F. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 1. An elements position on the periodic table tells a lot about the element. 2. Understanding the properties of elements can help you decide which element to use in a particular situation. Discussion Question Describe different ways that metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are useful. Metals are useful as conductors and for making sheets and wires; nonmetals are useful as insulators; metalloids are useful as semiconductors. T7

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