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1 TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 15 Transport in the Body What are is the circulatory system? What are the parts of the heart? 3 Comparing Heart Valves Enrichment Activity for Lesson What are blood vessels? What is blood? 6 Investigating Blood Types Enrichment Activity for Lesson What happens to blood as it circulates? What is heart disease? 9 THE BIG IDEA Integrating Health Technology: How is technology used to treat cardiovascular disease? 10 Chapter 15 Key Term Review 11 Chapter 15 Test 12 Chapter 15 Answer Key 15 (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 1

2 15-1 What is the circulatory system? PART A Complete the following. 1. What is circulation? 2. Describe a closed circulatory system. 3. Check each statement that is true about the circulatory system. a. made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood b. made up of a protective frame of bones c. transports food and oxygen d. made up of nerve cells and the brain e. transports carbon dioxide away from cells f. helps the body fight disease g. hormones send messages through this system h. regulates body temperature 4. In the circulatory system, what connects the arteries to veins? 5. What is a hormone? Skills: organizing, relating concepts Read each action in the table. Then, decide if the circulatory system is transporting materials, protecting the body, or regulating temperature. Use the terms transport, protection, or regulation to identify the kind of job being performed by the circulatory system in the second column of the table. FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Action Kind of Job 1. Potassium and oxygen are taken to body cells. 2. White blood cells destroy a virus. 3. Hormone is carried from a gland to another organ. 4. Blood vessels near skin narrow to keep in heat. 5. White blood cells destroy bacteria. 6. Blood vessels near the skin become wider to give off heat. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 2

3 15-2 What are the parts of the heart? PART A Match each term in Column B with its description in Column A. Write the correct letter in the space provided. Column A 1. upper chamber of the heart 2. lower chamber of the heart 3. thick tissue wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart 4. thin flap of tissue that acts as a one-way door 5. instrument used to listen to the heart 6. rhythm of pumping blood Column B a. ventricle b. atrium c. valve d. septum e. heartbeat f. stethoscope PART B Answer the following. 1. Where does blood flow into the heart? 2. When do the atria contract? 3. What structures keep blood from flowing from the ventricles to the atria? 4. When do the ventricles contract? _ 5. What structures keep blood in the blood vessels from flowing back to the ventricles? _ Skills: identifying, labeling In the spaces provided, label the parts of the heart. Use the terms right atrium, valve, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle, and septum. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 3

4 Comparing Heart Valves Enrichment Activity for Lesson 15-2 Skills: applying concepts, researching, modeling PART A Each of the valves in the heart has a different shape. Use reference materials to research each of the heart valves listed below. Then, describe the shape, location, and function of each valve in the spaces provided. 1. bicuspid valve: 2. tricuspid valve: 3. aortic semilunar valve: 4. pulmonary semilunar valve: PART B Draw a diagram of the heart in the space below. Label the following structures in your diagram: right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, septum, aorta, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic semilunar valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, and pulmonary arteries. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 4

5 15-3 What are blood vessels? PART A Complete the following. 1. What are blood vessels? 2. How many kinds of blood vessels are there? _ 3. What are arteries? 4. What is the aorta? 5. What are veins? 6. What kinds of blood vessels connect arteries to veins? PART B Match each blood vessel to its description. Write the correct letter in the space provided. 1. have thick, muscular walls 2. tiny vessels through which substances are exchanged with cells 3. contain valves to keep blood from flowing backward a. capillaries b. veins c. arteries Skills: comparing, classifying Decide if each characteristic in the table describes arteries, veins, or capillaries. Place a check mark in the correct column to indicate your answer. CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD VESSELS Characteristic Arteries Veins Capillaries 1. Thick, muscular walls 2. Carry blood to heart 3. Some have valves 4. Pumps blood at high pressure 5. Walls are one cell thick 6. Connect arteries to veins 7. Pulse is felt in these (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 5

6 15-4 What is blood? Complete the following. 1. What is blood? 2. What is plasma? 3. What is the job of red blood cells? _ 4. What is the job of white blood cells? 5. What are platelets? 6. What are the four blood types? 7. What is a transfusion? 8. Check the statements that are true about red blood cells. a. mixture of solid and liquid d. carry oxygen b. do not have nuclei e. contain hemoglobin c. large cells with nuclei f. help fight disease Skills: analyzing, relating concepts, classifying Study the illustrations. Then, in the spaces provided, identify each illustration using the terms red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 6

7 Investigating Blood Types Enrichment Activity for Lesson 15-4 Skills: inferring, graphing, relating concepts Human blood is classified into four types: A, B, AB, and O. The plasma in each blood type contains certain chemicals. The chemicals in one blood type may cause problems if mixed with those of another blood type. As a result, each blood type can only be used with certain other blood types. PART A The table below shows the relationships among the blood types. It also shows the percentage of the population that has each blood type. Use the information in the table to answer the questions. BLOOD TYPES Blood Type Accepts Transfusions from These Blood Types Percent of Population with This Blood Type A A, O 42% B B, O 10% AB A, B, AB, and O 3% O O 45% 1. A person with type B blood needs a transfusion. Which blood types can this person be given? _ 2. Which blood types can receive type A blood? 3. a. Suppose you surveyed the students in your school about their blood type. Which blood type would most students probably have? b. Which blood type would the fewest students probably have? 4. Why do you think type O blood is called the universal donor? 5. Type AB blood is called the universal recipient. Why? PART B Survey 20 people about their blood type. Use the survey data to make a bar graph on the grid. Survey Results A _ B _ AB _ O _ (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 7

8 15-5 What happens to blood as it circulates? Match each term in Column B with its description in Column A. Write the correct letter in the space provided. Column A 1. receives blood from body 2. receives blood from pulmonary veins 3. pumps blood into aorta and body 4. pumps blood into pulmonary artery 5. gives up oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide 6. gives up carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen Column B a. left atrium b. capillary in lungs c. capillary in body d. right ventricle e. left ventricle f. right atrium Skills: identifying, diagramming, applying concepts Put the steps of circulation in order. Write the numbers 1 10 in the spaces provided. The first one is done for you. 1 a. Blood passes from the body s arteries to capillaries. b. Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary artery. c. Blood is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta. d. Blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle. e. Blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle. f. Pulmonary veins carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium. g. Blood from the aorta branches into many smaller arteries. h. Blood passes from pulmonary arteries into the lung capillaries. i. Blood in the veins is carried to the right atrium. j. Blood passes from the body s capillaries to the veins. k. Blood in the body capillaries releases oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide. l. Blood in the lung capillaries releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 9

9 15-6 What is heart disease? Complete the following. 1. The diagrams show two arteries. What kind of heart disease is affecting the artery on the right? _ 2. What causes a heart attack? 3. What are the coronary arteries? 4. What are two factors that contribute to developing heart disease? 5. What parts of the body does heart disease affect? 6. Explain why your chances of developing heart disease increase if someone in your family has had heart disease. Skills: researching, identifying, relating Describe how each of the following can contribute to heart disease. 1. obesity 2. gender 3. smoking 4. physical inactivity 5. diet (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 10

10 THE Big IDEA Integrating Technology Chapter 15 How is technology used to treat cardiovascular disease? Refer to the article, call outs, and pictures on pages 370 and 371 of your text to answer the following questions. 1. About how many people have heart disease? 2. What is an arteriogram? 3. What is the purpose of angioplasty? Skills: inferring, analyzing, researching Complete the following. 1. Why does robotic surgery allow for faster recovery than traditional open-heart surgery? 2. Why might safe and effective artificial hearts be better than heart transplants? 3. Robert Tools lived for nearly five months after he received the world s first totally implantable artificial heart. His doctors called him a hero. Why might he be considered a hero? Science Log Writing Activity Complete the Science Log on a separate sheet of paper. To complete the Big Idea Online, go to Follow the online instructions. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 10

11 Chapter 15 Key Term Review Use the clues to complete the crossword puzzle. Clues Across 1. Flap of tissue in the heart that acts as a one-way door 3. Part of blood that helps clotting 5. Iron compound in red blood cells 9. System that carries blood through the body in tubes (3 words) 10. Liquid part of blood 12. Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart 13. Connects arteries to veins Down 2. Lower chamber of the heart 3. Artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs (2 words) 4. Movement of blood throughout the body 6. Largest artery in the body 7. Wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart 8. Upper chamber of the heart 11. Blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 12

12 Chapter 15 Test Interpreting Diagrams Use the terms listed in the box to label the diagram below. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Then, answer the questions that follow. aorta pulmonary artery atrium septum vein from body ventricle valve Which kind of blood vessel is not shown in the diagram? 9. What does blood moving through Part 1 of the diagram contain? _ 10. What does blood moving through Part 6 of the diagram contain? _ 11. What are three jobs of the circulatory system? Multiple Choice Write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes the statement or answers the question. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. The upper chambers of the heart are the a. atria. b. ventricles. c. valves. d. septum. 2. A thick tissue wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart is the a. atrium. b. valve. c. ventricle. d. septum. 3. A thin flap of tissue that acts like a one-way door is a. a septum. b. a valve. c. a ventricle. d. an atrium. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 13

13 Chapter 15 Test (continued) 4. Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are a. veins. b. capillaries. c. arteries. d. valves. 5. Blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart are a. capillaries. b. veins. c. arteries. d. valves. 6. Tiny blood vessels that connect arteries to veins are a. capillaries. b. plasma. c. platelets. d. valves. 7. Blood can be separated into its liquid and solid parts by a a. closed circulatory system. b. blood clot. c. centrifuge. d. platelet. 8. The liquid part of blood is called a. hemoglobin. b. plasma. c. platelets. d. white blood cells. 9. Pieces of cells that are involved in blood clotting are a. hemoglobin. b. plasma. c. platelets. d. white blood cells. 10. Red blood cells a. help blood clot. b. transport oxygen. c. fight disease. d. have nuclei. 11. White blood cells a. transport carbon dioxide. b. transport food. c. destroy germs. d. destroy oxygen. 12. In a closed circulatory system, blood travels through all of the following except a. arteries. b. veins. c. capillaries. d. nerve fibers. 13. Movement of blood through the body is called a. circulation. b. protection. c. regulation. d. hemoglobin. 14. The artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs is the a. respiratory artery. b. septum. c. pulmonary artery. d. aorta. 15. In the capillaries of the lungs, blood picks up a. carbon dioxide. b. oxygen. c. food. d. wastes. 16. The protein in red blood cells is a. glucose. b. hemoglobin. c. amino acid. d. pepsin. 17. A red blood cell is different from other kinds of body cells because a red blood cell a. is larger than other cells. b. destroys germs. c. lacks a nucleus. d. contains a nucleus. 18. Each time the heart beats, a pulse can be felt in a. a vein. b. a capillary. c. the septum. d. an artery. 19. The blood vessel with the thinnest walls is a. a capillary. b. a vein. c. an artery. d. an aorta. 20. Valves are found in some a. capillaries. b. arterioles. c. veins. d. arteries. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 14

14 Chapter 15 Test (continued) Written Response Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 21. LIST: List at least five of the substances that the circulatory system transports. _ 22. INFER: What would happen to your heart rate if you ran for 1 minute? What would happen if you then stopped and rested for 10 minutes? Why do you think that your heart rate changes? _ (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 14

15 Answer Key CHAPTER 15: TRANSPORT IN THE BODY 15-1 What is the circulatory system? 1. movement of blood throughout the body 2. A closed circulatory system forms a long network of tubes that are connected to make a continuous path. 3. Students should place check marks beside letters a, c, e, f, g, and h. 4. capillaries 5. chemical messenger in the body 1. transport 2. protection 3. transport 4. regulation 5. protection 6. regulation 15-2 What are the parts of the heart? PART A 1. b 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. f 6. e PART B 1. the atria 2. when they are filled with blood 3. valves 4. when they are filled with blood 5. valves 1. right atrium 2. left atrium 3. valve 4. right ventricle 5. left ventricle 6. septum 15-2 What are the parts of the heart? Enrichment Activity: Comparing Heart Valves PART A 1. valve with two flaps located between the left atrium and the left ventricle; prevents backflow of blood into left atrium 2. valve with three flaps located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; prevents backflow of blood into right atrium 3. two moon-shaped valves located at the base of the aorta; allows blood to flow from left ventricle to aorta 4. two moon-shaped valves located at the base of the pulmonary artery; allows blood to flow from right ventricle to pulmonary artery PART B Check students drawings. Sample drawing: Please see page 17 of the Answer Key for drawing with labels What are blood vessels? PART A 1. tubes that carry blood throughout the body 2. three 3. blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart 4. the largest artery in the body 5. blood vessels that carry blood to the heart 6. capillaries PART B 1. c 2. a 3. b 1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Veins 4. Arteries 5. Capillaries 6. Capillaries 7. Arteries 15-4 What is blood? 1. a fluid tissue that is part liquids and part solids 2. liquid part of blood 3. carry oxygen and carbon dioxide 4. defend the body against foreign substances 5. pieces of cells that are used for blood clotting 6. A, B, AB, and O 7. transfer some of blood from one person to another 8. Students should place check marks beside letters b, d, and e. 1. platelets 2. red blood cells 3. white blood cells 15-4 What is blood? Enrichment Activity: Investigating Blood Types PART A 1. B or O 2. A or AB 3. a. type O b. type AB 4. People with any blood type can receive type O blood. 5. People with AB blood can receive any other blood type. PART B Students data will most likely resemble the percentages shown in the table, but may not match them exactly. Types A and O will likely be the most common types What happens to blood as it circulates? 1. f 2. a 3. e 4. d 5. c 6. b a. 3 b. 8 c. 1 d. 7 e. 12 f. 11 g. 2 h. 9 i. 6 j. 5 k. 4 l. 10 (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 16

16 Answer Key 15-6 What is heart disease? 1. atherosclerosis 2. a lack of blood and oxygen to a part of the heart usually caused by a blocked coronary artery 3. arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the tissues of the heart 4. Accept any two of the following: age, gender, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, drinking alcohol, physical inactivity, and family history 5. heart and blood vessels 6. Some kinds of heart disease are genetic, or passed from parent to offspring. 1. Obese people are more than twice as likely to develop high blood pressure, which itself is a major cause of heart disease. 2. Men are more likely to die of heart disease than women. 3. Smoking constricts blood vessels, which when coupled with atherosclerosis, can be a major cause of heart disease. 4. Physical inactivity can contribute to obesity, lower blood circulation, and allow blood vessels to become clogged. 5. A diet heavy in fat and cholesterol can contribute to atherosclerosis. The Big Idea 1. about 12.4 million people 2. a picture of the arteries 3. to open blocked arteries 1. Robotic surgery requires only a small incision instead of opening the whole chest as in open-heart surgery. 2. Living, healthy hearts come from donors. Donors are in short supply. Living, healthy hearts are available to only a few patients who need them. Many more lives could be saved with safe, effective artificial hearts. 3. Robert Tools volunteered to help test the first implantable artificial heart. He knew he would live only a short time even if he survived the surgery, but he lived much longer than the doctors expected. Scientists learned a great deal because of Mr. Tools sacrifice. CHAPTER 15: TRANSPORT IN THE BODY Key Term Review Across 1. valve 3. platelets 5. hemoglobin 9. closed circulatory system 10. plasma 12. arteries 13. capillaries Down 2. ventricle 3. pulmonary artery 4. circulation 6. aorta 7. septum 8. atrium 11. veins CHAPTER 15: TRANSPORT IN THE BODY Chapter Test Interpreting Diagrams 1. vein from body (posterior vena cava) 2. atrium 3. ventricle 4. septum 5. valve 6. aorta 7. pulmonary artery 8. capillary 9. carbon dioxide and waste products 10. oxygen 11. Accept any three of the following: transport of food, oxygen, and waste products; protection of the body from disease; transport of hormones; and regulation of body temperature. Multiple Choice 1. a 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. b 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. c 10. b 11. c 12. d 13. a 14. c 15. b 16. b 17. c 18. d 19. a 20. c Written Response 21. Accept any five of the following: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, hormones, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food molecules, nutrients, wastes, and heat 22. My heart rate would increase if I ran for 1 minute. My heart rate would then decrease if I rested. The body needs more oxygen when engaged in a rigorous activity and less oxygen when engaged in a relaxing activity. (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 16

17 Answer Key 15-2 What are the parts of the heart? Enrichment Activity: Comparing Heart Valves PART B (c) by Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group. All rights reserved. Transport in the Body: CHAPTER 15, page 18

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