Answer keys for Assignment 7: Experimental study designs

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1 Answer keys for Assignment 7: Experimental study designs (The correct answer is underlined in bold text) 1) Which of the following interventions can be tested in a clinical trial? a) b) c) d) e) New Vaccines New drugs Different doses of products New diagnostic kit All of the above 2) Randomized clinical trials can be best described as a. Experimental studies b. Analytic studies c. Descriptive studies d. All of the above 3) One of the following is one of the cornerstones of the RCT a. Recruitment b. Randomization c. Blinding d. None of the above 4) The main reasons for random assignment in a clinical trial is/are a. To maintain equal number of participants in each arm b. To minimize confounding c. To minimize co-interventions and bias in outcome ascertainment d. b&c are true e. a&b are true 5) Which of the following is/are true in a clinical trial? a. Sample size determination b. Approval from regulatory authority c. Agreement between the investigators and sponsors d. All of the above 1

2 6) A pharmacologically inactive agent that investigators administer to participants in the control group of a trial is called as: a. Comparator drug b. Placebo c. Conjugate d. None of the above 7) At which of the following levels is double blinding targeted? a. Participants b. Participants and investigators c. Participants, investigators and analysts d. Participants and analysis 8) The purpose of a double blinding or double masking in a clinical trial is to a. Achieve comparability of all arms of a clinical trial b. Avoid observer and subject bias d. Avoid observer bias and sampling variation e. Avoid subject bias and sampling variation 9) Which of the following is true? The key methodological components of an RCT are a. Use of a control condition to which the experimental intervention is compared b. Random assignment of participants to conditions c. Taking informed consent from all study participants d. a&b e. b&c f. a,b & c 10) Which phase of a clinical trial is referred to as post-marketing surveillance? a. Phase 1 b. Phase 2 c. Phase 3 d. Phase 4 2

3 Answer keys for Assignment 8: Validity of epidemiological studies (The correct answer is underlined in bold text) 1. Obtaining an accurate estimate of disease frequency and effect of exposure on health outcomes in study population pertains to a. External Validity b. Internal Validity c. Bias d. Confounding 2. Obtaining an estimate that is generalizable to relevant study population in an epidemiological study is a. External Validity b. Internal Validity c. Bias d. Confounding 3. Variability in estimation due to unknown/un controllable causes a. Chance b. Bias c. Confounding d. Effect Modification 4. Any process that tends to produce results that depart systematically from true values in an epidemiological study a. Chance b. Bias c. Random error d. Effect Modification 5. Bias that occurs in an epidemiological study when the study participants do not represent the target population a. Selection bias b. Information bias c. Confounding d. Sampling error 3

4 6. Systematic selection of more number of exposed participants with the higher risk of outcome in a cohort study will result in a. Selection bias b. Information bias c. Confounding d. Random error 7. Better recall of exposure among the cases in a case control study can result in a. Information bias b. Confounding c. Investigator bias d. Selection bias 8. The effect of the exposure of interest on the outcome is distorted because of the effect of extraneous factors that are related to both the exposure and outcome. This phenomenon is called as a. Correlation effect b. Confounding c. Recall bias d. Measurement error 9. Blinding in an epidemiological study is a way to deal with a. Chance b. Selection Bias c. Information Bias d. Sampling Error 10. Biases can occur during which stage of epidemiological study? a. Study design b. Study implement action c. Data analysis d. Any of the above 4

5 Answer keys for Assignment 9: Qualitative research methods (The correct answer is underlined in bold text) 1. Which of the following are characteristics of qualitative research methods? a. Objective, measurable, reliable and repeatable b. Subjective, measurable, credible and repeatable c. Subjective, credible, inductive and interpretation of responses d. Objective, credible, inductive and interpretation of responses 2. All of the following are situations in which qualitative research methods can be used, except a. Familiar and sufficiently researched matter b. To seek the depth of understanding c. Exploration of behaviors d. View the social phenomenon holistically 3. The main methods used in qualitative research method include all except a. In-depth Interviews b. Focus group discussions c. Participant observation d. Structured Questionnaire based interviews 4. The research method which is best suited for collection of information regarding highly sensitive matters such as domestic violence a. Focus Group Discussions b. Participant Observation c. In-Depth Interview d. All of the above 5. Which method in qualitative research use flexible interview guide? a. In depth Interviews and participant observation b. Focus Group Discussions and In-depth interviews c. Participant Observation an focus group discussions d. Structured interviews and surveys 6. The observer becomes a part of the group or event in this method of qualitative study a. In depth Interviews b. Focus Group Discussions c. Participant Observation d. Structured interviews 5

6 7. All the statements regarding Participant Observation is true except a. Observer becomes a part of the event/group b. Systematic collection of data is easy c. Analytic methods for observation are not well described d. Data is very detailed 8. Open ended group interviews that promotes discussions among participants a. In depth Interviews b. Focus Group Discussions c. Participant Observation d. Structured interviews 9. Which of the following study designs can be used as a tool a generate ideas/hypotheses? a. Qualitative study b. Case control study c. Experimental study d. Cohort study 10. The qualitative data analysis method which uses theoretical framework as the basis for analysis a. Content analysis b. Grounded theory c. Schema Analysis d. Hermeneutics 6

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