Labor market indicators of the Sugar Cane-AgroSystem in Brazil

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1 Labor market indicators of the Sugar Cane-AgroSystem in Brazil Ethanol Summit Sao Paulo Jun 2007 Márcia Azanha Ferraz Dias de Moraes ESALQ/University of São Paulo

2 The competitiviness of the Brazilian sugar alcohol system is well known in the international market We have the lowest production costs of sugar cane, sugar and alcohol We are proud of being the first country in the world to have an alternative energy program to substitute gasoline - Proalcool We have made huge investments in technology in both agriculture and industry sectors converted in impressive productivity gains Since 1999 the sector has worked in an almost complete free market Research question Does the Brazilian labor market perform well?

3 Metodology and Data A) Analysis of institutional and organizational environment of the labor market in Brazil's sugar/ethanol industry a) a description of specific laws applied to the labor market (wage formation, hiring rules, seasonal labor, unions, professional associations, etc); b) a description of employers and workers organizations (unions) involved in wage negotiations in the state of São Paulo (main domestic producer); c) interviews with representatives of unions of workers and employers in the state of São Paulo, with the aim of understanding the mechanism involved in wage negotiations and identifying relevant wage formation variables

4 B) Survey of socioeconomic information in the PNAD and RAIS databases PNAD - National Household Sample Survey Carried out by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics IBGE It is a sampling survey Formal and informal labor Questionnaire filled out by employees RAIS Administrative Records of the Ministry of Labor and Employment It is a census survey (cover 90% of the organized sectors of the national economy) Formal labor market Questionnaire filled out by employers

5 Institutional Environment Existence of a solidus institutional apparatus Laws ruling the labor market in Brazil are: - The Federal Constitution, the country s greatest law; - Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT) - Rural Worker s Law (5889/73) and Decree 73624/74, to enforce the referred law. - Law No , of February14, 2001, that proposes about wage policy - Annual Collective Regulations (Conventions and Agreements defined among class unions (employers and workers), which are juridical regulations provisioned in Labor Law

6 Organizational Environment - SP Category State Organization Employers (Cane growers, mill s associated agricultural companies, sugar mills and alcohol distilleries) Employees (Rural and industry employees) Rural (Sugar cane) FAESP (Sao Paulo State Federation of Agriculture) and Employers Rural Unions Alcohol SIFAESP (Sao Paulo State Union of the Alcohol Manufacturing Industry) state base Sugar SIAESP (Sao Paulo State Sugar Industry Union) state base Rural (Sugar cane) Alcohol Sugar FERAESP (Sao Paulo State Federation of Rural Employees) starting in July, 2003, and Rural Employees Unions FEQUIMFAR (Sao Paulo State Federation of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry Workers) and affiliated unions FETIAESP (Sao Paulo State Federation of the Food Industry Workers) and affiliated unions

7 Sugar Cane Production (tons) Sugar Mills by State AL AM BA CE ES GO MA MG MS MT PA PB PE PI PR RJ RN RS SE SP TO 169 Legenda Produção de cana-de-açúcar (toneladas) De Até Cor

8 Spatial Production Harvest 2005/06 SugarCane Mt % 63% 12.5% NNE CS Brazil SP Sugar Thousand ton Alcohol Thousand Gallons % 65.6% 14.5% NNE CS Brazil SP % 63.3% 9.5% 9.5% NNE CS Brazil SP

9 Evolution of numbers workers by producing region and sector RAIS Formal Jobs Region Δ Results Sugarcane Sugar Ethanol NNE 81, , % CS 275, , % Grand Total Brazil 356, , % NNE 143, ,120 62% CS 74, , % Grand Total Brazil 217, , % NNE 25,730 31, % CS 42,408 96, % Grand Total Brazil 68, , % Grand Total for Brazil - 3 sectors 642, , %

10 Sugar: Number of employees, Wages and Schooling (2005) Total Years of Schooling Monthly Average Wage (US$) National Minimum Wage (US$) Wage/ National Wage Brazil 125, % NNE 48, % CS 71, % SP 52, % Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD in US$ dec 2005

11 Alcohol: Number of employees, Wages and Schooling (2005) Total Years of Schooling Monthly Average Wage (US$) National Minimum Wage (US$) Wage/ National Wage Brazil 79, % NNE 2, % CS 76, % SP 44, % Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD in US$ dec 2005

12 Sugarcane: Number of employees and wages (2005) Total Years of Schooling Monthly Average Wage (US$) National Minimum Wage (US$) Wage/ National Wage Brazil 519, % NNE 268, % CS 250, % SP 153, % Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD in US$ dec 2005

13 Evolution of the Number of Employees and of the Sugar Cane Production Number of Employees Linear (Number of Employees) Sugar Cane Production Linear (Sugar Cane Production) Production: 170% Production: 28.8% Employees: 16.9% Employees: 18% Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD (several years)

14 Sugar Cane: Evolution of numbers of formal and informal workers by producing region - PNAD Δ% Number of employees NNE 221, % CS 196, % 268, % 250, % Total 418, , Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD

15 Sugarcane: Decrease of the number of employees Mechanization of sugarcane harvesting - economic reasons (social contributions) - legal reasons - São Paulo State: prohibition to burn sugarcane as a straw-removal method - NR 31 Enhance of mechanizaton: - reduces the demand for workers with a lower schooling - increases the demand for skilled labor (albeit a lower percentage)

16 Sugarcane: Evolution of the number of formal and informal workers Brazil (%) ,9 62,8 53,6 46,4 37,2 27, Formal Informal Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD (several years)

17 Sugarcane: Evolution of the number of formal and informal workers (%) NNE region ,9 57,7 60, ,1 42,3 39, Formal Informal Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD (several years)

18 Sugarcane: Evolution of the number of formal and informal workers (%) SP state ,8 80, ,6 6, Formal Informal Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD (several years)

19 Sugarcane: Evolution of Schooling 6 Average Schooling BR NNE CS SP Despite the positive evolution observed in the schooling between 1981 and 2005 their average schooling increased from 2.2 to 3.5 years - it should be highlighted that it is still very low: 77.3% of the workers in sugarcane plantations in Brazil have up to 4 years of schooling, while 29.4% (that is, about 155,000 workers) are illiterate Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD (several years)

20 Sugarcane Brasil: Number of employees by Age Bracket Age bracket Number of Employees total % Number of Employees total % , , , , , , , , , , , , > 60 24, , Total 625, , Source: Prepared based on data provided by PNAD

21 Conclusions Institutional environment: there is a solidus institutional apparatus Organizational Environment (SP): unions Existence of organized and active unions (both employers and workers unions) Unions of Sugar employees and alcohol employees: powerfull Rural employees: weaker, but effective Increase in the number of formal workers, less use of child labor, increase in schooling 29.9% of sugarcane production employees are illiterate Reduction of 16.9% in the number of employees in the sugarcane production during 1981/2005 period, despite the growth of 170% in the production Mechanization process: increases demand for skilled labor and reduces demand for lower schooling workers

22 Thank for your attention

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